Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: D. S. Gurjar

3 Solid Lipid Nanoparticles of Levamisole Hydrochloride

Authors: Surendra Agrawal, Pravina Gurjar, Supriya Bhide, Ram Gaud


Levamisole hydrochloride is a prominent anticancer drug in the treatment of colon cancer but resulted in toxic effects due poor bioavailability and poor cellular uptake by tumor cells. Levamisole is an unstable drug. Incorporation of this molecule in solid lipids may minimize their exposure to the aqueous environment and partly immobilize the drug molecules within the lipid matrix-both of which may protect the encapsulated drugs against degradation. The objectives of the study were to enhance bioavailability by sustaining drug release and to reduce the toxicities associated with the therapy. Solubility of the drug was determined in different lipids to select the components of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN). Pseudoternary phase diagrams were created using aqueous titration method. Formulations were subjected to particle size and stability evaluation to select the final test formulations which were characterized for average particle size, zeta potential, and in-vitro drug release and percentage transmittance to optimize the final formulation. SLN of Levamisole hydrochloride was prepared by Nanoprecipitation method. Glyceryl behenate (Compritol 888 ATO) was used as core comprising of Tween 80 as surfactant and Lecithin as co-surfactant in (1:1) ratio. Entrapment efficiency (EE) was found to be 45.89%. Particle size was found in the range of 100-600 nm. Zeta potential of the formulation was -17.0 mV revealing the stability of the product. In-vitro release study showed that 66 % drug released in 24 hours in pH 7.2 which represent that formulation can give controlled action at the intestinal environment. In pH 5.0 it showed 64% release indicating that it can even release drug in acidic environment of tumor cells. In conclusion, results revealed SLN to be a promising approach to sustain the drug release so as to increase bioavailability and cellular uptake of the drug with reduction in toxic effects as dose has been reduced with controlled delivery.

Keywords: SLN, nanoparticulate delivery of levamisole, pharmacy, pharmaceutical sciences

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2 Stomach Specific Delivery of Andrographolide from Floating in Situ Gelling System

Authors: Pravina Gurjar, Bothiraja Pour, Vijay Kumbhar, Ganesh Dama


Andrographolide (AG), a bioactive phytoconstituent, has a wider range of pharmacological action. However, due to the intestinal degradation, shows low oral bioavailability. The aim of the present work was to develop Floating In-situ gelling Gastro retentive System (FISGS) for AG in order to enhance its site specific absorption and minimize pH dependent hydrolysis in alkaline environment. Further to increase its therapeutic efficacy for peptic ulcer disease caused by H. pyroli. Gellan based floating in situ gelling system of AG were prepared by using sodium citrate and calcium carbonate. The 32 factorial designs was used to study the effect of gellan and calcium carbonate concentration (independent variables) on dependent variable such as viscosity, floating lag time and drug release. Developed system was evaluated for drug content, floating lag time, viscosity, and drug release studies. Drug content, viscosity, and floating lag time was found to be 81-99%, 67-117 Cps, and 3-5 sec, respectively. The obtained system showed good in vitro floating ability for more than 12 h using 0.1 N HCl as dissolution medium with initial burst release followed by the controlled zero order drug release up to 24 hrs. In vivo testing of FISGS of AG to rats demonstrated significant antiulcer activity that were evaluated by various parameters like pH, volume, total acidity, millimole equivalent of H+ ions/30 min, and protein content of gastric content. The densities of all the formulation batches were found to be near about 0.9 and floating duration above 12 hr. It was observed that with the increase in conc. of gellan there was increase in the viscosity of formulation but all formulations were in optimum range. The drug content of optimized batch was found to be 99.23. In histopathology study of stomach, the villi at the mucosal surface, the intercellular junction, the intestinal lumen were intact; no destruction of the epithelium, and submucosal gland in formulation treated and control group animals as compared to pure drug AG and standard ranitidine. Gellan-based in situ gastro retentive floating system could be advantageous in terms of increased bioavailability of AG to maintain an effective drug conc. in gastric fluid as well as in serum for longer period of time.

Keywords: andrographolide, floating drug delivery, in situ gelling system, gastroretentive system

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1 Impact of Wastewater Irrigation on Soil Quality and Productivity of Tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L. cv. Prajwal)

Authors: D. S. Gurjar, R. Kaur, K. P. Singh, R. Singh


A greater volume of wastewater generate from urban areas in India. Due to the adequate availability, less energy requirement and nutrient richness, farmers of urban and peri-urban areas are deliberately using wastewater to grow high value vegetable crops. Wastewater contains pathogens and toxic pollutants, which can enter in the food chain system while using wastewater for irrigating vegetable crops. Hence, wastewater can use for growing commercial flower crops that may avoid food chain contamination. Tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) is one of the most important commercially grown, cultivated over 30, 000 ha area, flower crop in India. Its popularity is mainly due to the sweet fragrance as well as the long keeping quality of the flower spikes. The flower spikes of tuberose has high market price and usually blooms during summer and rainy seasons when there is meager supply of other flowers in the market. It has high irrigation water requirement and fresh water supply is inadequate in tuberose growing areas of India. Therefore, wastewater may fulfill the water and nutrients requirements and may enhance the productivity of tuberose. Keeping in view, the present study was carried out at WTC farm of ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi in 2014-15. Prajwal was the variety of test crop. The seven treatments were taken as T-1. Wastewater irrigation at 0.6 ID/CPE, T-2: Wastewater irrigation at 0.8 ID/CPE, T-3: Wastewater irrigation at 1.0 ID/CPE, T-4: Wastewater irrigation at 1.2 ID/CPE, T-5: Wastewater irrigation at 1.4 ID/CPE, T-6: Conjunctive use of Groundwater and Wastewater irrigation at 1.0 ID/CPE in cyclic mode, T-7: Control (Groundwater irrigation at 1.0 ID/CPE) in randomized block design with three replication. Wastewater and groundwater samples were collected on monthly basis (April 2014 to March 2015) and analyzed for different parameters of irrigation quality (pH, EC, SAR, RSC), pollution hazard (BOD, toxic heavy metals and Faecal coliforms) and nutrients potential (N, P, K, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) as per standard methods. After harvest of tuberose crop, soil samples were also collected and analyzed for different parameters of soil quality as per standard methods. The vegetative growth and flower parameters were recorded at flowering stage of tuberose plants. Results indicated that wastewater samples had higher nutrient potential, pollution hazard as compared to groundwater used in experimental crop. Soil quality parameters such as pH EC, available phosphorous & potassium and heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd. Pb, Ni, Cr, Co, As) were not significantly changed whereas organic carbon and available nitrogen were significant higher in the treatments where wastewater irrigations were given at 1.2 and 1.4 ID/CPE as compared to groundwater irrigations. Significantly higher plant height (68.47 cm), leaves per plant (78.35), spike length (99.93 cm), rachis length (37.40 cm), numbers of florets per spike (56.53), cut spike yield (0.93 lakh/ha) and loose flower yield (8.5 t/ha) were observed in the treatment of Wastewater irrigation at 1.2 ID/CPE. Study concluded that given quality of wastewater improves the productivity of tuberose without an adverse impact on soil quality/health. However, its long term impacts need to be further evaluated.

Keywords: conjunctive use, irrigation, tuberose, wastewater

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