Commenced in January 2007
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A Study on the Impact of Employment Status of the Elderly on Their Mental Well-Being in India

Authors: Dhananjay W. Bansod, Santosh B. Phad, Priyanka V. Janbandhu

Abstract:

Population Ageing is a growing concern for the social scientists. There is a higher level of aged male participation compared to elderly females. Now, the critical question is whether participation in work improves the quality of life among the elderly and the impact of working status on the mental well-being of the elderly. While examining these research questions, the present paper focuses on the workforce participation of the elderly and the reasons behind it, additionally, determines the association between employment status and the mental well-being of the elderly. The present study has a base of two data sources. First one is Census of India data, 2001 and 2011, and another one is – the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE), a survey conducted in 2007. To capture the trend of workforce participation elderly Census data is significant and to obtain other information associated with this issue the SAGE data is studied. The research piece consists of univariate and bivariate analysis along with some statistical methods like principal component analysis (PCA) and regression modeling – to investigate the association between workforce participation of elderly and subjective well-being (SWB). The results show that the percentage of elderly participating in the labor market is gradually reducing, but the share of working elderly has increased within the group of overall workers. i.e., the ratio of aged workers to non-aged workers is rising. The findings from survey data specify that there is a considerable share of the elderly in the labor market; three-fourths of the employed elderly enrolled the workforce unwillingly. They are in need of some earnings mainly to afford the medical expenses on their health or the health of their spouse, also to support their family members who are economically inactive. Apart from need, duration of working is another vital aspect for the elderly, whereas more than 80 percent of the elderly are working for six hours or more, and most of them engaged in self-employment. However, more than one-third of the working elderly falls into a negative cluster of the subjective well-being (SWB) index, and it is consistent with the result of the discriminant analysis. Here, the SWB index calculated from the 12 items and the reliability score of these items is 0.89.

Keywords: Ageing, Workforce, SAGE, census of India

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