Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
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Proposition of an Integrative Model for Assessing the Effectiveness of the Performance Management System

Authors: Mariana L. de Ara├║jo, Pedro P. M. Menezes


Research on strategic human resource management (SHRM) has made progress in the last few decades, showing a relationship between policies and practices of human resource management (HRM) and improving organizational results. That's because demonstrating the effectiveness of any HRM or other organizational practice, which means the extent that this can operate as a tool to achieve organizational performance, is a complex and arduous task to execute. Even today, there isn't consensus about "effectiveness," and the tools to measure the effectiveness are disconnected and not convincing. It is not different from the performance management system (PMS) effectiveness. A disproportionate focus on specific criteria adopted and an accumulation of studies that don't relate to the others, which damages the development of the field. Therefore, it aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the PMS through models, dimensions, criteria, and measures. The objective of this study is to propose a theoretical-integrative model for evaluating PMS based on the literature in the PMS field. So, the PRISMA protocol was applied to carry out a systematic review, resulting in 57 studies. After performing the content analysis, we identified six dimensions: learning, societal impact, reaction, financial results, operational results and transfer, and 22 categories. In this way, a theoretical-integrative model for assessing the effectiveness of PMS was proposed based on the findings of this study, in which it was possible to confirm that the effectiveness construct is somewhat complex when viewing that most of the reviewed studies considered multiple dimensions in their assessment. In addition, we identified that the most immediate and proximal results of PMS are the most adopted by the studies; conversely, the studies adopted less distal outcomes to assess the effectiveness of PMS. Another finding of this research is that the reviewed studies predominantly analyze from the individual or psychological perspective, even when it comes to criteria whose phenomena are at an organizational level. Therefore, this study converges with a trend recently identified when referring to a process of "psychologization" in which GP studies, in general, have demonstrated macro results of the GP system from an individual perspective. Therefore, given the identification of a methodological pattern, the predominant influence of individual and psychological aspects in studies on HRM in administration is highlighted, demonstrated by the reflection on the practically absolute way of measuring the effectiveness of PMS from perceptual and subjective measures. Therefore, based on the recognition of the patterns identified, the model proposed to promote studies on the subject more broadly and profoundly to broaden and deepen the perspective of the field of management's interests so that the evaluation of the effectiveness of PMS can promote inputs on the impact of the PMS system in organizational performance. Finally, the findings encourage reflections on assessing the effectiveness of PMS through the theoretical-integrative model developed so that the field can promote new theoretical and practical perspectives.

Keywords: performance management, strategic human resource management, effectiveness, organizational performance

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