Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30302
Disability Diversity Management: A Case Study of the Banking Sector in the KSA

Authors: Nada Azhar

Abstract:

This paper is drawn from a wider study of the management of gender, age and disability diversity in the banking sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), which aims to develop a framework for diversity management (DM) in this sector. The paper focuses on the management of disability diversity. The purpose of the paper is to assist in understanding disability DM in the banking sector in KSA and to make suggestions for its enhancement. Hence, it contributes to filling a research gap, as there is a dearth of literature on disability DM, in KSA in general, and in the banking sector specifically. Discrimination against people with disabilities is a social issue that has not been entirely overcome in any society. However, in KSA, Islam informs almost every aspect of daily life including work, and Islam is against discrimination. Hence, in KSA, there are regulations to accommodate people with disabilities; however, employers are still free not to hire job applicants with disabilities specifically because of their condition. Indeed, disabled people are almost entirely absent from the labour market. There are 12 Saudi-owned or part-Saudi-owned banks in KSA and two managers from each of these were interviewed, making a total of 24. The interviews aimed to investigate empirically the understanding of managers in the banking sector in KSA of diversity management, including disability DM, in the banking sector. The interview data were analysed using thematic analysis. Two interviewees stated that banks used the employment of people with disabilities to enhance their corporate image, while five expressed the opinion that disabled employees could contribute to the bank provided they did not have to deal with customers face-to-face. Nine of the interviewees perceived that disabled employees could be of value to the bank for their own sake, not only in ‘behind the scenes’ roles. Another two interviewees mentioned that employing disabled people could be part of the bank’s community service programme and one thought it would be part of the bank’s Saudisation efforts. The remaining five interviewees did not know how disabled people could contribute to the bank. The findings show that disability DM in the banking sector in KSA is a relatively new concept, and is not yet well understood. In the light of the findings, in order to achieve the purpose of the paper, the following suggestions were made for the enhancement of disability DM in the banking sector in KSA. A change in attitudes towards disabled people is necessary. Such a change in the workplace can only be achieved if a top-down approach is taken to the integration of disabled people. Hence, it is suggested that management and employees follow a course in disability awareness. Further, a diversity officer in the HR department could enhance the integration of disabled people into the banking workforce. It is also suggested that greater government support is required through closely monitored and enforced anti-discrimination legislation. Moreover, flexible working arrangements such as part-time work would facilitate the employment of disabled people and benefit other groups of employees.

Keywords: Banking, Disability, diversity management, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1097213

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3400

References:


[1] Saudi Ministry of Health, 2013. Disability: Reasons, Types, Treatment and Rehabilitation. Available from http://www.moh.gov.sa/en/ HealthAwareness/EducationalContent/Diseases/locomotor/Pages/rehabil itation.aspx Accessed 19th September, 2014.
[2] K. Scholasticus, 2009. Discrimination against Disabled People in the Workplace. Available from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/ discrimination-against-disabled-people-in-the-workplace.html Accessed 12th September, 2014.
[3] N. Pillay, 2010. Monitoring the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Guidance for Human Rights Monitors (Professional Training Series No. 17). Available from http://www.ohchr.org/ Documents/Publications/Disabilities_training_17EN.pdf Accessed 19th September, 2014.
[4] United Nations, 2007. Report on the Implementation of the World Programme of Action concerning Disabled Persons: The Millennium Development Goals and Synergies with other United Nations Disability Instruments. Available from http://www.un.org/disabilities/ default.asp?id=711 Accessed 19th September, 2014.
[5] M. C. Marumoagae, 2012. Disability Discrimination and the Right of Disabled Persons to Access the Labour Market. Available from http://www.saflii.org/za/journals/PER/2012/10.html Accessed 14th September, 2014.
[6] L. Adams, andK. Oldfield, Opening up work: The views of disabled people and people with long-term health conditions. London: Equality and Human Rights Commission Research report, 2012.
[7] Society for Human Resource Management, 2009. Global Diversity and Inclusion: Perceptions, Practices and Attitudes. Available from http://www.shrm.org/research/surveyfindings/articles/documents/diversi ty_and_inclusion_report.pdf Accessed 18th September, 2014.
[8] T. Thanem, Embodying disability in diversity management research. Equal Opportunities International, vol. 27, no. 7, 2008, pp. 581-595.
[9] J. Shenker,The Middle East’s Invisibles. The Guardian 5 December 2009. Available from http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/ 2009/dec/05/middle-east-disability-poverty Accessed 19th September 2014.
[10] A. S. Al-Dosary, S. Rahman, and M. Shahid, An Integrated Approach to Combat Unemployment in the Saudi Labour Market. Journal of Societal & Social Policy, vol. 4, no.2, 2005, pp. 1-18.
[11] D. Mont, Measuring Health and Disability. Lancet, vol. 369, 2007, pp. 1658–663.
[12] S. Al-Gain, and S. Al-Abdulwahab, Issues and Obstacles in Disability Research in Saudi Arabia. Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal, vol. 13, no. 1, 2002, pp. 45-49.
[13] O. Henry, and A. J. Evans, Critical review of literature on workforce diversity. African Journal of Business Management, 2007, pp. 72-76.
[14] M. Mor Barak, Managing Diversity: Toward a Globally Inclusive Workplace, 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Ltd. 2011.
[15] N. Azhar, Diversity Management of Gender, Age and Disability in the Banking Sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Social, Management, Business and Engineering, vol. 8, no. 8, 2014, pp. 2442-2447.
[16] F. Albawardy, How well does HRD research travel? The Methodological Challenges of Research into the Strategic Value of Learning in Saudi Arabia. Paper presented to the 10th International Conference on Human Resource Development: Research and Practice across Europe. Newcastle Business School, Northumbria University, 10- 12 June 2009.
[17] N. Kabbara, 2003. Arab Conference on Disability held October 2002 in Beirut, Identifies Violence as a Major Cause of Disability. Available from http://www.disabilityworld.org/04-05_03/violence/arab.html Accessed 4thSeptember, 2014.
[18] World Bank,A Note on Disability Issues in the Middle East and North Africa. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 2005.
[19] A. S. Elsheikh, and A. M. Alqurashi,Disabled Future in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Humanities and Social Science, vol. 16, 2013, pp.68-71.
[20] M. S. Al-Jadid, Disability in Saudi Arabia.Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 34, no. 5, 2013, pp. 453-460.
[21] Arab News, KSA has 720000 disabled, 2012. Available from http://www.arabnews.com/ksa-has-720000-disabled Accessed 19th September, 2014.
[22] K. Abulahid, 2012. 900 thousand cases of disabled people in the Kingdom, up 8% from last year. Okaz, no. 3989, May 19. Available from http://www.okaz.com.sa/new/Issues/20120519/Con20120519504227.ht m Accessed 19th September 2014.
[23] Saudi Central Department of Statistics and Information,2014. Population. Available from http://www.cdsi.gov.sa/english/ Accessed 13th September, 2014.
[24] S. J. Uddin, Understanding the framework of business in Islam in an era of globalization: a review. Business Ethics: A European Review, vol. 12, no. 1, 2003, pp. 23-32.
[25] A. A. Almazari, and M. A. Almmani, Measuring Profitability Efficiency of the Saudi National Banks International Journal of Business and Social Science vol. 3, no. 14, 2012.
[26] SAMA, 2014. Annual Statistics. Available from http://www.sama.gov.sa/ReportsStatistics/ReportsStatisticsLib/5600_S_ Monthly_Bulletin_AREN.pdf Accessed 16th September, 2014.
[27] Alyaum,2014. R 2.8 million annual rate for the executive's salary and 175 thousand employees of, 6th March. Available from http://www.alyaum.com/article/3124979Accessed 17th September, 2014.
[28] Alriyadh, 2014. The proportion of women in the bank in excess of 15 %, which enhance the status of women in the Saudi economy. Available from http://www.alriyadh.com/948896 Accessed 16th September, 2014.
[29] S. B. Knouse, A. Smith, and P. Smith, Issues in Diversity Management. Defense Equal Opportunity Management Directorate of Research, Internal Report Number 05-08, Department of Management University of Louisiana, USA, 2008.
[30] S. Liff, Diversity and equal opportunities: room for a constructive compromise? Human Resource Management Journal, vol. 9, no.1, 1999, pp.65-75.
[31] C. Herring, Does Diversity Pay?: Race, Gender, and the Business Case for Diversity, American Sociological Review, vol. 74, no. 2, 2009, pp. 208-224.
[32] T. H. Cox, Cultural diversity in organisations: Theory, research and practice. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler, 1993.
[33] P. Dibden, P. James, I. Cunningham, and D. Smythe, Employers and employees with disabilities in the UK: An economically beneficial relationship? International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 29, issue 6, 2002, pp.453-467.
[34] C. Cassell, A Fatal Attraction? Strategic HRM and the Business Case for Women's Progression. Personnel Review, vol. 25, issue 5, 1996, pp. 51- 66.
[35] G. R. Stevens, Employers' perceptions and practice in the employability of disabled people: a survey of companies in South-East UK. Disability & Society, vol. 17, no. 7, 2002, pp.779-796.
[36] S. M. Bruyère, Disability Employment Policies and Practices in Private and Federal Sector Organizations. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, 2000.
[37] S. J. Studholme, Does the Employment Environment Further Disable People with Disabilities?: A Study of Selected Christchurch Employers and Their Perspectives of the Employment Situation for People with Disabilities. Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at the University of Canterbury,UK, 1994.
[38] A. Jameson, Disability and employment – Review of literature and research. Auckland, NZ: Equal Employment Opportunities Trust, 2005.
[39] C. Barnes, A working social model? Disability, work and disability politics in the 21st century. Critical Social Policy, vol. 20, no. 4, 2000, pp.441-457.
[40] CIPD. Diversity in the workplace: an overview. London: CIPD, 2011.
[41] C. Trenwith, Saudi looks to put 100,000 disabled people in jobs. Arab Business 21 February 2013. Available from http://www.arabianbusiness.com/saudi-looks-put-100-000-disabledpeople- in-jobs-490450.htmlAccessed 19thNovember,2014.
[42] M. Mansour, Employers' attitudes and concerns about the employment of disabled people.International Review of Business Research Papers, vol. 5, no. 4, 2009, pp.209-218.
[43] L. Schur, The difference a job makes: The effects of employment among people with disabilities. Journal of Economic Issues, 2002, pp. 339-347.
[44] AlRiyadh, Al Jazira Bank offers its services to customers with disabilities audio. April 10, 2012. Available from http://www.alriyadh.com/726050 Accessed 19thSeptember, 2014.
[45] The Saudi British Bank (SABB), 2013. SABB in the Community Available from http://www.sabb.com/1/2/sabb-en/about-us/sabb-in-thecommunity/ community Accessed 27thSeptember, 2014.
[46] NCB, 2010. Corporate Social Responsibility Report 2010. Available from http://www.alahli.com/ar-sa/about-us/csr/Pages/AlAhli-Social- Programs.aspx Accessed 19thSeptember, 2014.
[47] B. Gillham, Case study research methods. London: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2000.
[48] F. Kelliher, Interpretivism and the pursuit of research legitimisation: an integrated approach to single case design.The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methodology, vol. 3, issue 2, 2011, pp. 123-132.
[49] C. Geertz, The interpretation of cultures, New York: Basic Books, 1973.
[50] R. K. Yin, Case Study Research: Design and Methods. 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2009.
[51] D. W. Lyon, G. T. Lumpkin, and G. G. Dess, Enhancing entrepreneurial orientation research: Operationalizing and measuring a key strategic decision making process. Journal of Management, vol. 26, no. 5, 2000, pp. 1055-1085.
[52] F. Patterson, Developments in work psychology. Emerging issues and future trends.. Journal of Occupational and Organisational Psychology, no. 74, 2001, pp. 381–90.
[53] D. Williams, and K. Wade-Golden, The chief diversity officer. CUPAHR Journal, vol. 58, no. 1, 2007, p. 38.