The Effect of Drought Stress on Grain Yield, Yield Components and Protein Content of Durum Wheat Cultivars in Ilam Province, Iran
In order to study the effect of drought stress on grain yield, yield components and associated traits of durum wheat cultivars, an experiment was done as split plot arrangement using randomized complete block design with three replications in Ilam province, Iran in 2009-2010 cropping season. Different levels of irrigation (Full irrigation, drought stress at stem elongation, Flowering and grain formation stages) were considered as a main plot and three durum wheat cultivars (Yavaros, Seimareh and Karkheh) were assigned as a sub plot. The results showed that drought stress was significant on grain yield, spike.m-2, grain. Spike-1, 1000-grain weight, biological yield, harvest index and protein content. Drought stress at all stages caused a loss in grain yield and its components. Full irrigation had the highest grain yield and yield components. Drought stress at stem elongation, flowering and grain formation stages caused a reduction in spike.m-2, grain.spike-1 and 1000-grain weight, respectively. Protein content was significantly affected by drought stress. The highest protein content was obtained from drought stress at grain formation stage. Cultivars had an influence on grain yield and yield components. Yavaros and Seimareh cultivars had the highest and lowest grain yield, respectively. Interaction effect between drought stress and cultivar had a significant effect on grain and yield components. Full irrigation and Yavaros cultivar had the highest grain yield and drought stress at grain formation stage and Seimareh cultivar had the lowest grain yield, respectively.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1097114Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2347
 J.R. Fredrik and J. J. Camberto, “Water and nitrogen effects on winter wheat southeastern central plain: physiological response”, Agron. J. 87: 527-533. 1995.
 T.G. Reeves, S. Rajaram, M.V. Ginkel, R. Trethowan, H.J. Braun and R. Cassaday, “New wheats for a secure, Sustainable Future”, Mexico, D. F., CIMMYT. 1999.
 R. Naseri, A. Soleymanifard and R. Solemani, “Yield and yield components dry land cultivars as influenced by supplementary irrigation at different growth stages”, American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci. 7 (6): 684-688. 2010.
 A. Mirzaei, R. Naseri and R. Solemani, “Response of different growth stages of wheat to moisture tension in a semiarid land”, World Applied Sciences Journal 12 (1): 83-89. 2011.
 M. Ali, C.R Jensen, V.O. Mogensen and M.N. Anderson, “Root Signaling and osmotic adjustment during intermittent soil drying sustain grain yield of field grown wheat”, Field Crop Research. 62: 35- 52. 2001.
 E. Ibrahim, M.R. Amin, “Path analysis yield wheat under drought”, J. Arid Envir. 61: 483-496. 2005.
 A. Gonzalez, I. Martin and L. Ayerve, “. Barley yield in drought stress conditions. The influence of osmotic adjustment and stomatal conductance”, Field Crop Res. 62: 23-34. 1999.
 H. Akram, M.S. Iqbal, A. Saeed, A. Ali and M.A. Nadem, “Drought tolerance studies of wheat genotypes”, Pakistan Journal of Biological Sci. 71: 90-92. 2004.
 O. Singh, 1991, “Influence of water deficit on phenology, growth and dry matter allocation in chickpea”, Field Crops Research. 28: 1-15. 1991.
 K.H. Kheiralla, A.A. Ismail and G.R. El-Negar, “Drought tolerance and stability of some spring wheat cultivars”, Assist Journal of Agriculture Science. 28: 75-88. 1997.
 T.J. Kobota, A. Palta and N.C. Turner, “Rate of development of postanthesis water deficits and grain formation of spring wheat”, Crop. Sci. 32: 1238-1242. 1992.
 M.J. Gooding, R.H. Ellis, P.R. shewry and J.D. Schofield, “Effects of restricted wateravailability and increased temperature on grain formation , drying and quality of water wheat”, Journal of cereal Sci. 37.295-309. 2003.
 A. Winkel, “Breeding for drought tolerance in cereals”, Vortage-Fur- Pflanzenzvchtuny. 16: 368-375. 1989.
 B. Ehdaei,. “Genetic variation for stem reserves and its remobilization into grain in spning bread wheat under terminal drought conditions”, Proceedings of the 5th Iranian Crop Sciences Congress, Karaj, Iran. pp. 297. 1998
 A. Eivazi, S. Abdollahi, H. Salekdeh, I. Majidi, A. Mohamadi and B. Pirayeshfar, “Effect ofdrought and salinity stress on quality related traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar”, Iranian. J. of Crop Sci. 7: 252- 267. 2006.
 M.A. Sial, M.A. Arain, S.K. M. Naqavi, M. Dahoti and N.A. Nizamani, “Yield and qualityparameters of wheat genotypes as affected by sowing dated and high temperature stress”, Pak. J. Bot. 37 (3): 575-584. 2005.
 L.F. Garcia Del Moral, Y. Rharrabt, D. Villegas and C. Royo, “Evaluation of grainyield and its components in durum wheat under Mediteranean condition”, AgronomyJournal. 95: 266-274. 2003.
 M. Zaharieva, E. Gaulin, M. Havaux, E. Acevedo and P. Monneveux, “Drought andheat responses in the wild wheat relative AegilopsgeniculataRoth”, Crop Science. 14: 1321-1329. 2001.
 A.D. Day and S. Intalap, “Some effects of soil moisture in the growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum Lemthell) ”, Agron. J. 62: 27-32. 1970.
 R. J. Jones, J. Rooessler and S. Outtar, “Thermal environment during endosperm cell division and grain formation in maize. Effects on kernel growth and development in Vitro”, Crop Science. 25: 762-769.1985.
 R.A. Fischer, J.L. Lindt and A. Glave, “Irrigation of dwarf wheats in theYaqui Valley of Mexico”, Experimental Agriculture 13: 353-367. 1977.
 S. Rajaram, M. van Ginkel and R.A. Fischer, “CIMMYTs wheat breeding mega environments”, Proceeding of the 8th International Wheat Genetics Symposium, China Agricultural Scientech, Beijing, China pp.1101-1106. 1994.
 D.S. Nesmith and J.T. Ritchi, “Short and long term response of corn to a pre-anthesis soil water deficit”, Agron. J. 84: 107-113. 1992.
 P.K. Pandy, J.W. Maranville and A. Admou, “Tropical wheat response to irrigation and nitrogen in a Sahelian environment. I. Grain yield, yield components and water use efficiency”, Europ. J. Agron. 15: 93-105. 2001.
 S. Gebeyehu, “Physiological response to drought stress of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes differing in drought resistance”, Ph.D. Thesis. Univ. of Giessen. Germany. 2006.
 A. Kisman, “Effects of drought stress on growth and yield of soybean”, Sci Phil. Term paper. Borgor Agric. Univ. (Institute Pertanian Borgor). 2003.
 B.C. Jacobs and C.J. Pearson, “Potential yield of maize determined by rate of growth and development of ears”, Field Crops Res. 27: 281-298. 1991.
 C.S. Pierre, J. Petersona, A. Rossa, J. Ohma, M. Verhoevena, M. Larsona and B. Hoefera, “White wheat grain quality changes with genotype, nitrogen fertilization, and drought stress ”, Agron. J. 100: 414- 420. 2008.