Nanotechnology Innovations for the Sustainable Buildings of the Future
Sustainability, being the urgent issue of our time, is closely related with the innovations in technology. Nanotechnology (NT), although not a new science, can be regarded relatively a new science for buildings with brand new materials and applications. This paper tends to give a research review of current and near future applications of nanotechnology (NT) for achieving high-performance and healthy buildings for a sustainable future. In the introduction, the driving forces for the sustainability of construction industry are explained. Then, the term NT is defined, and significance of innovations in NT for a sustainable construction industry is revealed. After presenting the application areas of NT and nanomaterials for buildings with a number of cases, challenges in the adoption of this technology are put forward, and finally the impacts of nanoparticles and nanomaterials on human health and environment are discussed.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1094379Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
 A. Sev, Sürdürülebilir Mimarlık, Istanbul: YEM Yayın, 2009.
 P. Smith, Architecture in a Climate of Change: A Guide to Sustainable Design, Oxford: Architectural Press, 2005.
 United Nations Environmental Programme, "Buildings and Climate Change”, available online: http://www.unep.org/Documents. Multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=502&ArticleID=5545&l=en, 2007, Accessed on Apr 2014.
 M. Zimmermann, H. J., Althaus, A. Haas, "Benchmarks for sustainable construction: A contribution to develop a standard”, Energy and Buildings 37(11), 2005, pp. 1147–1157.
 European Union Regulation (EC) No. 761/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 March 2001 allowing voluntary participation by organizations in a community eco-management and audit scheme (EMAS), 2001, available online: http://ew.eea.europa.eu/ ManagementConcepts/EMAS/emas_en.pdf Accessed on May 2014.
 C. Kibert, Sustainable Consttruction: Green Building Design and Delivery, New York: Wiley Inc, 2008.
 J. J., Kim, B., Rigdon, Sustainable Architecture Module: Qualities, Use and Examples of Sustainable Building Materials, J. Graves (ed.). National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education, Michigan: University of Michigan, 1998.
 P. R., Feynmann, "There’s plenty of room at the bottom” (reprint from the speech given at the annual meeting of the West Coast section of the American Physical Society), Engineering Science, 23, 1960, pp. 22-36.
 Drexler K. "Molecular engineering: an approach to the development of general capabilities for molecular manipulation” Proceedings of National Academy of Science, 1981, 78, 1981, pp. 5275-5278.
 F. Pacheco-Torgal, S. Jalali, S., "Nanotechnology: Advantages and drawbacks in the field of construction and building materials”, Construction and Building Materials, 25, 2011, pp. 582-590.
 X. Li, W. Chang, Y. Chao, R. Wang, M. Chang "Nanoscale structural and mechanical characterization of a natural nanocomposite material: the shell of red abalone”, Nano Letters , 4 (4), 2004, pp. 613–617.
 M. Meyers, C. Lim, B. Nizam, E. Tan, Y. Seki, J. McKittrick, "The role of organic intertile layer in abalone nacre”. Material Science Engineering, C29, 2009, pp. 2398–2410.
 A. K. Rana, S. B. Rana, A. Kumari, V. Kiran, V., "Significane of Nanotechnology in Construction Engineering’, International Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering, 1(4), 2007, pp. 46-48.
 F. Sanchez, K. Sobolev, K., "Nanotechnology in Concrete – A Review”, Construction and Materials, 24, 2010, pp. 2060-2071.
 K. E. Drexler, C. Peterson, G. Pergamit, Unbounding the Future: The Nanotechnology Revolution. New York: William Morrow, 1991.
 P. J. M. Bartos, "Nanotechnology in construction: a roadmap for development”, In Z. Bittnar, P. J. M. Bartos, J. Nemecek, V. Smilauer, J. Zeman (eds.), Nanotechnology in Construction: Proceedings of the NICOM3 (3rd International Symposium on Nanotechnology in Construction), Prague, 2009, pp. 15–26.
 W. Zhu, P. Bartos, A. Porro, "Application of nanotechnology in construction”, Materials and Structures, 37 (9), 2004, pp. 649–658.
 J. Saurav, "Application of nanotechnology in building materials”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 2 (5), 2012, 1077-1082.
 Z. Ge, Z. Gao, "Applications of nanotechnology and nanomaterials in construction”, In 2008 Proceedings of First International Conference on Construction in Developing Countries, August 4-5 2008, Karachi, pp. 235-240.
 S. Mann, Nanotechnology and Construction. Nanoforum (Report, May 30, 2006.
 G. Y. Li, "Properties of high-volume fly ash concrete: (Incorporating nano-SiO2”, Cement and Concrete Research, 34 (6), 2004, pp. 1043– 1049.
 K. Sobolev, M. F., Gutierrez, "How nanotechnology can (change the concrete world”, American Ceramic Society Bulletin, (84 (11), 2005, pp. 16–20.
 G. Elvin, Nanotechnology for Green Building, Green Technology Forum, 2007, available online: http://esonn.fr/esonn2010/xlectures/ mangematin/Nano_Green_Building55ex.pdf Accessed May 2014.
 G. Armando, D. R. Bernal, "High strength micro/nano fine cement,” 2nd International Symposium on Nanotechnology in Construction, Bilbao, Spain, November 13-16, 2005, pp. 285-292
 Vanderbilt University, "Vanderbilt engineering receives National Science Foundation ‘CAREER’ Award for nano-fiber concrete research,” press release, 12-7-(2005, available online: http://www.vanderbilt.edu/news/ Accessed on April 2014.
 J. E. loeppel, "Mimicking biological systems, composite material heals itself,” press release, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, available online: http://www.news.uiuc.edu/scitips/01/0214selfheal.html (Accessed on April 2014).
 A. Porro, J. Dolado, I. Campillo, E. Erkizia, Y. De Miguel, Y. De Ybarra, "Effects of nanosilica additions on cement pastes”, In 2005 Proceedings of the International Conference on Applications of Nanotechnology in Concrete Design, 2005, pp. 87– 96.
 D. Lin, K. Lin, W. Chan, H. Luo, M. Cai, "Improvements of nano-SiO2 on sludge/fly ash mortar”, Waste Management, 28, 2008, pp. 1081– 1087.
 S. Anitei, "Ancient Damascus Swords, Product of Nanotechnology,” Softpedia.com, November 18, 2006, available on: http://news.softpedia.com/news/Damascus-Swords-Product-of Nanotechnology-40503.shtml Accessed on April 2014.
 MMFX Technologies Corporation, "Proprietary Patented Nanotechnology”, 2005, available online: http://www.mmfxsteel.com/ index.shtml Accessed on April 2014.
 T. H. Wegner, J. E. Winandy, M. A. Ritter, "Nanotechnolgy opportunities in residential and non-residential construction”, 2nd International Symposium on Nanotechnolgy in Construction, 13-16 November 2005, Bilbao, CD-ROM.
 T. Wegner, "Nanotechnology for the Forest Products Industry,” US Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI, January 27, 2007.
 Carmody, J., Selkowitz, S., Lee, S. e., Arasteh, D., Willmert, T., Window Systems for High-Performance Buildings, W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 2004.
 Fiberline Composites, "Plastic Composites,” http://www.fiberline.com/gb/home/index.asp
 Cientifica, "Nanotech: Cleantech - Quantifying The Effect of Nanotechnologies on CO2 Emissions,” 2007, available online: http://www.cientifica.eu/ Accessed on May 2014.
 Suzutora Co., "Blockage of Ultraviolet Rays and Heat Insulation,” 2004, available online: http://www.suzutora.co.jp/MASA/MASA_ENG/ ex03.html Accessed on May 2014.
 D. J. Palmer, "Carpet of nanorods makes for low-index films,” Materials Today, 10 (5), 2007, p. 15.
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "The Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality,” Washington: EPA, 1988, available online: http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/insidest.html (Accessed on May 2014).
 Risø National laboratory, "NanoByg: A survey of nanoinnovation in Danish construction”, available online: http://www.risoe.dk/rispubl/ reports/ris-r-1602.pdf Accessed on May 2014.
 M. Inman, "Bug-pooping surfaces promise clean surfaces”, NewScientist.com, 22 August 2007, available online: http://www.newscientist.com (Accessed on May 2014).
 Innovalight Inc., 2007, available online: http://www.innovalight.com/
 B. Walsh, "Environmentally Beneficial Nanotechnologies”, Food and Rural Affairs, May 2007, available online: www.defra.gov.uk/ environment/nanotech/policy/pdf/envbeneficial-report.pdf Accessed on May 2014.
 A. Norris, M. Saafi, P. Romine, 2008. "Temperature and moisture monitoring in concrete structures using embedded nanotechnology/ microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors”, Construction and Building Materials, 22 (2008), pp. 111-120.
 G. Song, H. Gu, Y. Mo, "Smart aggregates: Multi-functional sensors for concrete structures—a tutorial and a review”, Smart Materials and Structures, 17 (3), 2008, 033001.
 S. G. Prolongo, M. R. Gude, A. Ureña, "Nanoreinforced Adhesives”, in Nanofibers, A. Kumar (Ed.), 2010, available online: http://www.intechopen.com/books/nanofibers/nanoreinforced-adhesives Accessed on April 2014.
 M. Saafi, P. Romine, "Nano- and Microtechnology”, Concrete International, 27 (12), 2005, pp. 28-34.
 M.R. Weisner, G. V., Lowry, P. Alvarez, D. Dionysiou, P. Bisnas, "Assessing the risk of manufactured nanomaterials”, Environmental Science and Technology, 40 (14), 2006, pp. 4336-4345.
 V. O. Grassian, P. Shaughnessy, A. Adamcakova-Dodd, J. Pettibone, P. Thorne, "Inhalation exposure study of titanium dioxide nanoparticles with a primary particle size of 2–5 nm”, Environmental Health Perspective, 115, 2007, pp. 397–402.
 J. Lee, S. Mahendra, P. J. J. Alvarez, "Potential environmental and human health impacts of nanomaterials used in construction industry”, In Z. Bittnar, P. J. M. Bartos, J. Nemecek, V. Smilauer, J. Zeman (eds.), Nanotechnology in Construction: Proceedings of the NICOM3 (3rd International Symposium on Nanotechnology in Construction), Prague, 2009, pp. 1-14.
 M. Hallock, P. Greenley, L. Diberardinis, D. Kallin, "Potential risks of nanomaterials and how to safe handle materials of uncertain toxicity”, Journal of Chemical Health and Safety, 16 (1), 2009, pp. 16-23.
 N. Singh, B. Manshian, G. Jenkins, S. Griffiths, P. Williams, T. Maffeis, "NanoGenotoxicology: the DNA damaging potential of engineered nanomaterials”, Biomaterials, 30 (23-24), 2009, pp. 3891–3914.
 A. Dhawan, V. Sharma, D. Parmar, "Nanomaterials: a challenge for toxicologists”, Nanotoxicology, 3 (1), 2009, pp. 1–9.
 G. Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska, J. Golimowski, P. Urban, "Nanoparticles: their potential toxicity, waste and environmental management”, Waste Management, 29 (9), 2009, pp. 2587–2595.