The Composting Process from a Waste Management Method to a Remediation Procedure
Composting is a controlled technology to enhance the natural aerobic process of organic wastes degradation. The resulting product is a humified material that is principally recyclable for agricultural purpose. The composting process is one of the most important tools for waste management, by the European Community legislation. In recent years composting has been increasingly used as a remediation technology to remove biodegradable contaminants from soil, and to modulate heavy metals bioavailability in phytoremediation strategies. An optimization in the recovery of resources from wastes through composting could enhance soil fertility and promote its use in the remediation biotechnologies of contaminated soils.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1093273Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1885
 Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives. 2008
 Council Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste Official Journal L 182, 16/07/1999, pp. 1-19. 26 April 1999.
 Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and The Committee of the Regions. SEC 2005.1681-1682.
 Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection. SEC 2006. 620 and 1165.
 Eurostat News Release 33/2013. Environment in the EU27. 4 March 2013.
 N. Korbouleswky, Bonin G. and C. Massiani. "Biological and ecophysiological reactions of white wall rocket (Diplotaxis erucoides L.) grown on sewage sludge compost.” Environ. Pollut., vol. 117, pp. 365- 370, 2002.
 P. Prudent, M. Domeizel and C. Massiani. "Chemical sequential extraction as decision-making tool: application to municipal solid waste and its individual constituents.” Sci. total environ., vol. 178, pp. 55-61, 1996.
 P. M. Chapman, F. Wang, R. Janssen, R. R. Goudet and C. N. Kamunde. "Conducting ecological risk assessments of inorganic metals and metalloids” Human Ecol. Risk Assess., vol. 9, pp. 641-697, 2003.
 K. Harmsen. "Long-term behavior of heavy metals in agricultural soils: a simple analytical model” in Biogeochemistry of trace metals, D.C. Adriano ed., Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, pp. 217-47, 1992.
 G. Płaza, G. Jawecki, K. Ulfig and R. L. Brigmon. "The application of bioassays as indicators of petroleum-contaminated soil remediation.” Chemosphere, vol. 59, pp. 289-296, 2005.
 E. Y. Hwangb, J. S. Parka, J. Y. Choi. "Bioremediation of dieselcontaminated soil with composting.” Environ Pollut., vol. 119, pp. 23- 31, 2002.
 F. Coulon, M. Al Awadi, W. Cowie, D. Mardlin, S. Pollard, C. Cunningham, G. Risdon, P. Arthur, K. T. Semple, G. I. Paton. "When is a soil remediated? Comparison of biopiled and windrowed soils contaminated with bunker-fuel in a full-scale trial.” Environ. Pollut., vol. 158, pp. 3032-3040, 2010.
 V. P. Beškoski, G. Gojgić-Cvijović, J. Milić, M. Ilić, S. Miletić, T. Solević and M. M. Vrvić. "Ex situ bioremediation of a soil contaminated by mazut (heavy residual fuel oil) a field experiment.” Chemosphere, vol. 83, pp. 34-40, 2011.
 T. C. Lin, P. T. Pan and S. S. Cheng. "Ex situ bioremediation of oilcontaminated soil.” J. Hazard Mater., vol. 176, pp. 27-34, 2010.
 C. Kao, H. Chien, R. Surampalli, and W. Sung. "Application of Biopile System for the Remediation of Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils.” World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2009, pp. 1-10.
 N. Beaudin, R. F. Caron, R. Legros, J. Ramsey, L. Lawlor, and B. Ramsay. "Co-composting of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil in a laboratory-scale reactor.” Compost Sci Util., vol. 4, pp. 37- 45, 1996.
 S. Tandy, J. R. Healey, M. A. Nason, J. C. Williamson and D. L. Jones. "Remediation of metal polluted mine soil with compost: Co-composting versus incorporation. " Environ. Pollut., vol. 157, n. 2, pp. 690-697, 2004.
 L. Rizzi, G. Petruzzelli, G. Poggio, G. Vigna Guidi. "Analysis of structural properties of a mining soil in a process of phytostabilization.” in W. Werstraete ed. European Symposium on Environmental Biotechnology ESEB, pp. 591-594, 2004.
 F. Pedron, G. Petruzzelli, M. Barbafieri and E. Tassi. "Strategies to use phytoextraction in very acidic soil contaminated by heavy metals.” Chemosphere, vol. 75, pp. 808-814, 2009.