Evaluation of the Environmental Risk from the Co-Deposition of Waste Rock Material and Fly Ash
The lignite-fired power plants in the Western Macedonia Lignite Center produce more than 8106 t of fly ash per year. Approximately 90% of this quantity is used for restoration-reclamation of exhausted open-cast lignite mines and slope stabilization of the overburden. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the environmental behavior of the mixture of waste rock and fly ash that is being used in the external deposition site of the South Field lignite mine. For this reason, a borehole was made within the site and 86 samples were taken and subjected to chemical analyses and leaching tests. The results showed very limited leaching of trace elements and heavy metals from this mixture. Moreover, when compared to the limit values set for waste acceptable in inert waste landfills, only few excesses were observed, indicating only minor risk for groundwater pollution. However, due to the complexity of both the leaching process and the contaminant pathway, more boreholes and analyses should be made in nearby locations and a systematic groundwater monitoring program should be implemented both downstream and within the external deposition site.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1093018Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1554
 C. Koukouzas, N. Koukouzas, "Coals from Greece: distribution, quality and reserves”, European Coal Geology Special Publications-Geological Society, vol. 82, 1995, pp. 171–180.
 G. Skodras et al., "Quality characteristics of Greek fly ashes and potential uses”, Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 88, 2007, pp. 77–85.
 A. Filippidis, A. Georgakopoulos, "Mineralogical and chemical investigation of fly ash from the Main and Northern lignite fields in Ptolemais, Greece”, Fuel, vol. 71, 1992, pp. 373-376.
 N. Koukouzas et al., "Mineralogy and geochemistry of Greek and Chinese coal fly ash”, Fuel, vol. 85, 2006, pp. 2301-2309.
 G. Kostakis, "Characterization of the fly ashes from the lignite burning power plants of northern Greece based on their quantitative mineralogical composition”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 166, 2009, pp. 972-977.
 K. Fytianos et al., "Leachability of heavy metals in Greek fly ash from coal combustion”, Environment International, vol. 24 (4), 1998, pp. 477-486.
 A. Georgakopoulos et al., "Environmentally important elements in fly ashes and their leachates of the power stations of Greece”, Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, vol. 24 (1), 2002, pp. 83-91.
 A. Iordanidis et al., "A correlation study of trace elements in lignite and fly ash generated in a power station”, International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, vol. 79 (2), 2001, pp. 133-141.
 D. Lutze, W. vom Berg, "Handbook on fly ash in concrete”, Verlag Bau+Technik, Duesseldorf, Germany, 2010.
 H.J. Feuerborn, "Calcareous ash in Europe - a reflection on technical and legal issues”, 2nd Hellenic Conference on Utilisation of Industrial By-Products in Construction, Aiani Kozani, Greece, June 1-3, 2009.
 H.J. Feuerborn, "Coal combustion products and REACH”, 2nd Hellenic Conference on Utilisation of Industrial By-Products in Construction, Aiani Kozani, Greece, June 1-3, 2009.
 European Union, "Corrigendum to Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), establishing a European Chemicals Agency, amending Directive 1999/45/EC and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 793/93 and Commission Regulation (EC) No 1488/94 as well as Council Directive 76/769/EEC and Commission Directives 91/155/EEC, 93/67/EEC, 93/105/EC and 2000/21/EC”, Official Journal of the European Communities, 29.05.2007, pp. 3-280.
 M. Ahmaruzzaman, "A review on the utilization of fly ash”, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, vol. 36, 2010, pp. 327–363.
 S. Tsimas, A. Moutsatsou-Tsima, "High-calcium fly ash as the fourth constituent in concrete: problems, solutions and perspectives”, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 27, 2005, pp. 231–237.
 A. Xenidis et al., "Potential use of lignite fly ash for the control of acid generation from sulphidic wastes”, Waste Management, vol. 22, 2002, pp. 631–641.
 A. Moutsatsou, V. Protonotarios, "Remediation of polluted soils by utilizing hydrothermally treated calcareous fly ashes”, China Particuology, vol. 4 (2), 2006, pp. 65-69.
 A. Moutsatsou et al., "The utilization of Ca-rich and Ca–Si-rich fly ashes in zeolites production”, Fuel, vol. 85, 2006, pp. 657–663.
 B. K. Dutta et al., "Leaching of elements from coal fly ash: Assessment of its potential for use in filling abandoned coal mines”, Fuel, vol. 88, 2009, pp. 1314–1323.
 E. Hansen, M. Christ, "Water quality impacts of coal combustion waste disposal in two West Virginia coal mines”, 2005, Morgantown, WV: Downstream Strategies LLC.
 B. Prasad, K. Mondal, "The impact of filling an abandoned open cast mine with fly ash on ground water quality: a case study”, Mine Water Environment, vol. 27, 2009, pp. 40–45.
 G. K. Arnold et al., "Determining the extent of ground and surface water contamination adjacent to embankments comprising PFA”, Final Report to UKQAA, School of Civil Engineering, Nottingham Centre for Pavement Engineering, 2002.
 H. Y. Jo et al., "Environmental feasibility of using coal ash as a fill material to raise the ground level”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 154, 2008, pp. 933–945.
 European Union, "Council Decision 2003/33 of 19 December 2002 establishing criteria and procedures for the acceptance of waste at landfills pursuant to Article 16 of and Annex II to Directive 1999/31/EC”, Official Journal of the European Communities, 16.01.2003, pp. 27-49.