Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31108
Natural Antioxidant Changes in Fresh and Dried Spices and Vegetables

Authors: Liga Priecina, Daina Karklina


Antioxidants are became the most analyzed substances in last decades. Antioxidants act as in activator for free radicals. Spices and vegetables are one of major antioxidant sources. Most common antioxidants in vegetables and spices are vitamin C, E, phenolic compounds, carotenoids. Therefore, it is important to get some view about antioxidant changes in spices and vegetables during processing. In this article was analyzed nine fresh and dried spices and vegetables- celery (Apium graveolens), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens), leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), onion (Allium cepa), celery root (Apium graveolens var. rapaceum), pumpkin (Curcubica maxima), carrot (Daucus carota)- grown in Latvia 2013. Total carotenoids and phenolic compounds and their antiradical scavenging activity were determined for all samples. Dry matter content was calculated from moisture content. After drying process carotenoid content significantly decreases in all analyzed samples, except one -carotenoid content increases in parsley. Phenolic composition was different and depends on sample – fresh or dried. Total phenolic, flavonoid and phenolic acid content increases in dried spices. Flavan-3-ol content is not detected in fresh spice samples. For dried vegetables- phenolic acid content decreases significantly, but increases flavan-3-ols content. The higher antiradical scavenging activity was observed in samples with higher flavonoid and phenolic acid content.

Keywords: Spices, Vegetables, Carotenoids, Phenolic Compounds, antiradical scavenging activity

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3165


[1] A.A. Hamid O.O.Aiyelaagbe, L.A.Usman, O.M.Ameen, A.Lawal. "Antioxidants: Its medicinal and pharmacological applications”. African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 2010, Vol.4(8), pp.142-151.
[2] A.Patras, B.K.Tiwari, N.P.Brunton "Influence of blanching and low temperature preservation strategies on antioxidant activity and phytochemical content on carrots, green beans and broccoli”. LWTFood Science and Technology, 2011, 44, pp.299-306
[3] M.Ozcan, D.Arslan, A.Unvert "Effect of drying methods on the mineral content of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)”. Journal of Food Engineering, 2005, 69, pp.375-379
[4] E.M. Goncalves "Carrot (Daucus carota L.) peroxidase inactivation, phenolic content and physical changes kinetics due to blanching”. Journal of Food Engineering, 2010, 97, pp.574-581.
[5] M. Naczk, F.Shahidi "Phenolics in cereals, fruits and vegetables: Occurrence, extraction and analysis”. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical analysis, 2006, 41, pp.1523-1542
[6] A.Farah, C.M.Donangelo. "Phenolic compounds in coffe”. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 2006, 18(1), pp.23-36.
[7] V.Perla, D.G.Holm, S.S.Jayanty. "Effects of cooking methods on polyphenols, pigments and antioxidant activity in potato tubers”. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 2012, pp.161-171.
[8] C.Manach, A.Scalbert, C.Morand, C.Remesy, L.Jimenez. "Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2004, 74, pp.727-747.
[9] J.Fiedor, K.Burda. "Potential role of carotenoids as antioxidants in human health and disease”. Nutrients, 2014, 6, pp.466-488.
[10] J.S.Seo, B.J.Burri, Z.Quan, T.R.Neidlinger. "Extraction nd chromatography of carotenoids from pumpkin”. Journal of Chromatography, 2005, 1073, pp.371-375
[11] I.Alibas. "Microwave, air and combined microwave-air-drying parameters of pumpkin slices”. LTW-Food Science and Technology, 2007, 40, pp.1445-1451.
[12] I.Dini, G.C.Tenore, A.Dini. "Effect of industrial and domestic processing on antioxidant properties of pumpkin pulp”. LTW- Food Science and Technology, 2013, 53, pp.382-385.
[13] Russian National standard ГОСТ Р 54058-2010 "Method to determined total carotenoids”. Russia, Moscow, 2011. Available in internet:
[14] G.Pande, C.C.Akoh. "Organic acids, antioxidant capacity, phenolic content and lipid characterisation of Georgia- grown underutilized fruit crops”. Food Chemistry, 2010, 120, pp.1067- 1075.
[15] F.D.Olivera, S.Z.Vina, C.M.Marani, R.M.Ferreyra, A.Mugridge, A.R. Chaves, R.H.Mascheroni. "Effect of blanching on the quality of Brussels sprouts (Brassica olearacea L. gemmifera DC) after frozen storage”. Journal of Food Engineering, 2008, 84, pp.148- 155.
[16] U.Gawlic-Dziki. "Dietary spices as natural effectors of lipoxygenase, xanthine oxidase, peroxidase and antioxidant agents”. LTW-Food Science and Technology, 2012, 47, pp.138-146
[17] K.Ložiene, P.R.Venskutonis, A.Šipailiene, J.Labokas. "Radical scavenging and antibacterial properties of the extracts from different Thymus pulegioides L chemotypes”. Food Chemistry, 2007, 103, pp.546-559.
[18] W.Zam, G.Bashour, W.Abdewahed, W.Khayata. "Separation and purification of proanthocyanidins extracted from pomegranate’s peels (Punica Granatum)”. International Journal of Pharmaceutcal sciences and Nanotechnology, 2012, 3(5), pp.1808-1813
[19] A.El-M.MR.Afify, H.S.El-Beltagi, S.M.Abd El-Salam, A.A.Omran. "Biochemical changes in phenols, flavonoids, tannins, vitamin E, β-carotene and antioxidant activity during soaking of three white sorghum varieties”. Asian Pasific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2012, pp.203-209.
[20] N.Erkan, H.Cetin, E.Ayranci. "Antioxidant activities of Sideritis congesta Davis et Huber-Morath and Sideritis araguta Boiss et Heldr: Identification of free flavonoids and cinnamic acid derivatives”. Food Research International, 2011, 44, pp.297-303.
[21] M. Stankevicius, I. Akuneca, I. Jakobsone, A. Maruska. Analysis of phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activities of spice plants extracts. Maisto Chemija ir Technologija, 2010, 44 (2), pp.85-91.