An Analysis of Eco-efficiency and GHG Emission of Olive Oil Production in Northeast of Portugal
Olive oil production sector plays an important role in Portuguese economy. It had a major growth over the last decade, increasing its weight in the overall national exports. International market penetration for Mediterranean traditional products is increasingly more demanding, especially in the Northern European markets, where consumers are looking for more sustainable products. Trying to support this growing demand this study addresses olive oil production under the environmental and eco-efficiency perspectives. The analysis considers two consecutive product life cycle stages: olive trees farming; and olive oil extraction in mills. Addressing olive farming, data collection covered two different organizations: a middle-size farm (~12ha) (F1) and a large-size farm (~100ha) (F2). Results from both farms show that olive collection activities are responsible for the largest amounts of Green House Gases (GHG) emissions. In this activities, estimate for the Carbon Footprint per olive was higher in F2 (188g CO2e/kgolive) than in F1 (148g CO2e/kgolive). Considering olive oil extraction, two different mills were considered: one using a two-phase system (2P) and other with a three-phase system (3P). Results from the study of two mills show that there is a much higher use of water in 3P. Energy intensity (EI) is similar in both mills. When evaluating the GHG generated, two conditions are evaluated: a biomass neutral condition resulting on a carbon footprint higher in 3P (184g CO2e/Lolive oil) than in 2P (92g CO2e/Lolive oil); and a non-neutral biomass condition in which 2P increase its carbon footprint to 273g CO2e/Lolive oil. When addressing the carbon footprint of possible combinations among studied subsystems, results suggest that olive harvesting is the major source for GHG.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1091982Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2407
 F. Iraldo, F. Testa, and I. Bartolozzi, "An application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as a green marketing tool for agricultural products: the case of extra-virgin olive oil in Val di Cornia, Italy," Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, vol. 57, pp. 78-103, 2013.
 S. W. McDaniel and D. H. Rylander, "Strategic green marketing," Journal of consumer marketing, vol. 10, pp. 4–10, 1993.
 B. Rugani, I. Vázquez-Rowe, G. Benedetto, and E. Benetto, "A comprehensive review of carbon footprint analysis as an extended environmental indicator in the wine sector," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 54, pp. 61-77, 2013.
 W. W. Ingwersen, "Life cycle assessment of fresh pineapple from Costa Rica," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 35, pp. 152-163, 2012.
 R. Salomone and G. Ioppolo, "Environmental impacts of olive oil production: A Life Cycle Assessment case study in the province of Messina (Sicily)," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 28, pp. 88-100, 2012.
 IOOC, International Olive Oil Council. Available from: www.internationaloliveoil.org. Accessed February 2013.
 V. Uylaşer and G. Yildiz, "The Historical Development and Nutritional Importance of Olive and Olive Oil Constituted an Important Part of the Mediterranean Diet," Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 2013.
 I. E. Kapellakis, K. P. Tsagarakis, and J. C. Crowther, "Olive oil history, production and by-product management," Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, vol. 7, pp. 1-26, 2008.
 INE - Instituto Nacional de Estatística, I. P., "Recenseamento Agrícola 2009 - Análise dos principiais resultados", Lisboa, Portugal, 2011.
 D. Maxime, M. Marcotte, and Y. Arcand, "Development of eco-efficiency indicators for the Canadian food and beverage industry," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 14, pp. 636-648, 2006.
 IPCC – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, "2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories", Japan, 2006.
 A. K. Petersen Raymer, "A comparison of avoided greenhouse gas emissions when using different kinds of wood energy," Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 30, pp. 605-617, 2006.
 H. K. Sjølie and B. Solberg, "Greenhouse gas emission impacts of use of Norwegian wood pellets: A sensitivity analysis," Environmental Science and Policy, vol. 14, pp. 1028-1040, 2011.
 M. Avraamides and D. Fatta, "Resource consumption and emissions from olive oil production: a life cycle inventory case study in Cyprus," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 16, pp. 809-821, 2008.