Energy Efficient Shading Strategies for Windows of Hospital ICUs in the Desert
Hospitals, everywhere, are considered heavy energy consumers. Hospital Intensive Care Unit spaces pose a special challenge, where design guidelines requires the provision of external windows for daylighting and external view. Window protection strategies could be employed to reduce energy loads without detriment effect on comfort or health care. This paper addresses the effectiveness of using various window strategies on the annual cooling, heating and lighting energy use of a typical Hospital Intensive Unit space. Series of experiments were performed using the EnergyPlus simulation software for a typical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) space in Cairo, located in the Egyptian desert. This study concluded that the use of shading systems is more effective in conserving energy in comparison with glazing of different types, in the Cairo ICUs. The highest energy savings in the West and South orientations were accomplished by external perforated solar screens, followed by overhangs positioned at a protection angle of 45°.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1091784Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2117
 FGI,Guidelines for Design and Construction of Healthcare Facilities, USA: Facility Guidelines Institute, 2010.
 S. Pornkrisadanuphan, and P.Chaiwiwatworakul, "A Genetic Algorithm-Based Approach Design for Energy-Efficient Building inThailand,” In Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Environment Science and Engineering (IPCBEE), Singapore, 2011.
 S. Chungloo and S. Chungpaibulpatana, "Parametric analysis of energy efficient building envelope in Thailand,” Asian journal of energy environment, vol. 2, no.2, pp. 125–143, 2001.
 A. Sherif, H. Sabry and M. Gadelhak., 2013. "Daylighting simulation as means for configuring hospital intensive care unit windows under the desert clear skies,” In Proc. of the Building Simulation Conf. (BS 2013),Chambéry, France, 2013.
 J. Walch, BS. Rabin, R. Day, JN. Williams, K. Choi and JD. Kang, "The effect of sunlight on postoperative analgesic medication use: A prospective study of patients undergoing spinal surgery,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 165-163, 2005.
 C. Pechacek, M. Andersen and S. Lockley "Combining annual daylight simulation with photobiology data to assess the relative circadian efficacy of interior spaces,” In Proc. 5th National Conf. of IBPSA. Of eSim 2008, Canada, 2008.
 R. Ulrich, "Effects of healthcare interior design on wellness: Theory and recent scientific research,” Healthcare Interior DesignJ., vol. 3, pp. 97-109, 1991.
 R. Ulrich, X. Quan., C.Zimring, A. Joseph and R. Choudhary, "The role of the physical environment in the hospital of the 21st century: a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity,” The Center for Health Design SM, 2004.
 J. Khodakarami, and N. Nasrollahi, "Thermal comfort in hospitals – A literature review,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 4071– 4077, 2012.
 S. Ho,L. Rosario and M. Rahman, "Three-dimensional analysis for hospital operating room thermal comfort and contaminant removal,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 29, no.10, pp. 2080–2092, 2009.
 C. Balaras, E. Dascalaki and A. Gaglia, "HVAC and indoor thermal conditions in hospital operating rooms,” Energy and Buildings, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 454–470, 2007.