The Organizational Justice-Citizenship Behavior Link in Hotels: Does Customer Orientation Matter?
The goal of the present paper is to model two classic lines of research in which employees starred, organizational justice and citizenship behavior (OCB), but that have never been studied together when targeting customers. The suggestion is made that a hotel’s fair treatment (in terms of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice) toward customers will be appreciated by the employees, who will reciprocate in kind by favoring the hotel with increased customer-oriented behaviors (COBs). Data were collected from 204 employees at eight upscale hotels in the Canary Islands (Spain). Unlike in the case of perceptions of distributive justice, results of structural equation modeling demonstrate that employees substantively react to interactional and procedural justice toward guests by engaging in customer-oriented behaviors (COBs). The findings offer new reasons why employees decide to engage in COBs, and they highlight potentially beneficial effects of fair treatment toward guests bring to hospitality through promoting COBs.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1091488Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2066
 C. F. Chiang, and T. S. Hsieh, "The Impacts of Perceived Organizational Support and Psychological Empowerment on Job Performance: The Mediating Effects of Organizational Citizenship Behavior,” International Journal of Hospitality Management, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 180-190, 2012.
 E. Ma, H. Qu, M. Wilson, and K. Eastman, "Modeling OCB for Hotels Don’t Forget the Customers,” Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, Online First, 2013.
 H. Nadiri, and C. Tanova, "An Investigation of the Role of Justice in Turnover Intentions, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Hospitality Industry,” International Journal of Hospitality Management, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 33-41, 2010.
 C. H. Yen, and H. Y. Teng, "The Effect of Centralization on Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Deviant Workplace Behavior in the Hospitality Industry,” Tourism Management. Online First. 2012.
 J. M. Getty, and R. L. Getty, "Lodging Quality Index (LQI): Assessing Customers’ Perception of Quality Delivery,” International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 15, pp. 94-104, 2003.
 D. W. Organ, Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Good Soldier Syndrome, Published January, by Lexington Books, 1988.
 D. W. Organ, "Organizational Citizenship Behavior: It’s Construct Cleanup Time,” Human Performance, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 85-97, 1997.
 L. J. Williams, and S. E. Anderson, "Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment as Predictors of Organizational Citizenship and In-Role Behaviors,” Journal of Management, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 601-617, 1991.
 P. M. Podsakoff, M., Ahearne, S. B., and MacKenzie, "Organizational Citizenship Behavior and the Quantity and Quality of Work Group Performance,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 262-270, 1997.
 P. M. Podsakoff, S. B. Mackenzie, J. B. Paine, and G. D. Bacharach, "Organisational Citizenship Behaviours: A Critical Review of the Theoretical and Empirical Literature and Suggestions for Future Research,” Journal of Management, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 513–563, 2000.
 W. C. Borman, and S. J. Motowidlo, "Expanding the Criterion Domain to Include Elements of Contextual Performance,” in Personnel Selection in Organizations, N. Schmitt, and W. C. Borman, Ed. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco, 1993, pp. 71-9.
 D. W. Organ, P. M. Podsakoff, and S. B. MacKenzie, Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Its Nature, Antecedents and Consequences, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 2006.
 N. P. Podsakoff, S. W. Whiting, P. M. Podsakoff, and B. D. Blume, "Individual-and Organizational-Level Consequences of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Meta-Analysis,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 122-141, 2009.
 R. L. Oliver, "A cognitive model of the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction decisions,” Journal of Marketing Research, vol. 17 (November), pp. 460-69, 1980.
 L. A. Bettencourt, K. P., Gwinner, and M. L. Meuter, "A comparison of attitude, personality, and knowledge predictors of service-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors,” Journal of applied Psychology, vol. 86, no. 1, p. 29, 2001.
 Z. S. Dimitriades, "The influence of service climate and job involvement on customer-oriented organizational citizenship behavior in Greek service organizations: a survey,” Employee Relations, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 469- 491, 2007.
 P. D. Dunlop, and K. Lee, "Workplace deviance, organizational citizenship behavior, and business unit performance: the bad apples do spoil the whole barrel,” Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 25, pp. 67-80, 2004.
 M. G. Ehrhart, P. D. Bliese, and J. L. Thomas, "Unit level organizational citizenship behavior and unit effectiveness: examining the incremental effects of helping behavior”, Human Performance, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 159-173, 2006.
 D. J. Koys, "The effects of employee satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, and turnover on organizational effectiveness: a unit-level, longitudinal study,” Personnel Psychology, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 101-114, 2001.
 P. M. Podsakoff, and S. B. MacKenzie, "Organizational citizenship behaviors and sales unit effectiveness,” Journal of Marketing Research, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 351-363, 1994.
 S. M. Walz, and B. P. Niehoff, "Organizational citizenship behaviors: Their relationship to organizational effectiveness,” Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 301-319, 2000.
 D. W. Organ, "The motivational basis of organizational citizenship behavior,” Research in Organizational Behavior, vol. 12, pp. 43-72, 1990.
 Y. Cohen-Charash and P. E. Spector, "The role of justice in organizations: A meta-analysis,” Organizational behavior and human decision processes, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 278-321, 2001.
 J. A. Colquitt, D. E. Conlon, M. J. Wesson, C. Porter, and K. Y. Ng, "Justice at the millennium: A meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 86, pp. 425-445, 2001.
 J. A. LePine, A. Erez, and D. E. Johnson, "The nature and dimensionality of organisational citizenship behaviour: A critical review and meta-analysis,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 52-75, 2002.
 P. M. Blau, Exchange and Power in Social Life, John Wiley and Sons, 1964.
 K. Lee and N. J. Allen, "Organizational citizenship behavior and workplace deviance: The role of affect and cognitions,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 87, pp. 131-142, 2002.
 H. Zhang, and N. C. Agarwal, "The mediating roles of organizational justice on the relationships between HR practices and workplace outcomes: an investigation in China,” The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 676-693, 2009.
 D. P. Skarlicki, R., Folger, and P. Tesluk, "Personality as a moderator in the relationship between fairness and retaliation,” Academy of Management Journal, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 100-108, 1999.
 D. P. Skarlicki, and C. Kulik, "Third party reactions to employee mistreatment: A justice perspective,” in Research in organizational behavior, vol. 26, B. Staw & R. Kramer, Ed., 2005, pp. 183-230.
 K. N. Kennedy, F. G. Lassk, and J. R. Goolsby, "Customer mind-set of employees throughout the organization,” Journal of the academy of Marketing Science, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 159-171, 2002.
 R. Saxe, and B. A. Weitz, "The SOCO scale: a measure of the customer orientation of salespeople,” Journal of Marketing Research, pp. 343-351, 1982.
 Y. K. Lee, J. H. Nam, D. H. Park, and K. A. Lee, "What factors influence customer-oriented prosocial behavior of customer-contact employees?” Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 251-264, 2006.
 K. F. Winsted, "Service behaviors the lead to satisfied customers,” European Journal of Marketing, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 399-417, 2000.
 T. Hennig-Thurau, "Customer orientation of service employees: its impact on customer satisfaction, commitment, and retention,” International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 460-478, 2004.
 W. Kim, "Customers’ responses to customer orientation of service employees in full-service restaurants: a relational benefits perspective,” Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality and Tourism, vol. 10, pp. 153–174, 2009.
 W. Kim and C. Ok, "Customer orientation of service employees and rapport: influences on service-outcome variables in full-service restaurants,” Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 34–55, 2010.
 J. Kang and S. S. Hyun, "Effective communication styles for the customer-oriented service employee: Inducing dedicational behaviors in luxury restaurant patrons,” International Journal of Hospitality Management, vol. 31, no. 3, no. 772-785, 2012.
 S. L. Vargo and R. F. Lusch, "Service-Dominant Logic: Continuing the Evolution,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, vol. 36, pp. 1-10, 2008.
 M .G. Patterson, M. A. West, V. J. Shackleton, J. F. Dawson, R. Lawthom, S. Maitlis, and et al., "Validating the organisational climate measure: Links to managerial practices, productivity and innovation,” Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 379–408, 2005.
 M. L. Ambrose, A. S. Mark, and S. Marshall, "Sabotage in the workplace: the role of organizational injustice,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 947-965, 2002.
 A. M. O’Leary-Kelly, R. W. Griffin, and D. J. Glew, "Organization-motivated aggression: a research framework,” Academy of Management Review, vol. 21, pp. 225-253, 1996.
 World Tourism Organization, Annual Report 2011, UNWTO:Madrid, 2012.
 Canarian Government, Department of Tourism. Plazas hoteleras y extrahoteleras de la comnunidad autónoma de Canarias
[Hotel and non-hotel beds in the Canarian Autonomous Community, on-line]. http://www.gobiernodecanarias.org/presidenci a/turismo/estadisticas_y _estudios/#nolink, 2012.
 T. R. Hinkin, "A brief tutorial on the development of measures for use in survey questionnaires,” Organizational Research Methods, vol. 1, pp. 104-121, 1998.
 C. A. Schriesheim, K. J. Powers, T. A. Scandura, C. C. Gardiner, and M. J. Lankau, "Improving construct measurement in management research: comments and a quantitative approach for assessing the theoretical content adequacy of paper-and-pencil survey-type instruments,” Journal of Management, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 385-417, 1993.
 R. J. Rummel, Applied factor analysis, Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1970.
 D. P. Schwab, "Construct validity in organizational behavior,” in Research in Organizational Behavior, vol. 2, Ed. B. M. Staw, L. L. Cummings Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1980, pp. 3–43.
 O. M. Karatepe, "Customer complaints and organizational responses: The effects of complaints’ perceptions of justice on satisfaction and loyalty,” International Journal of Hospitality Management, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 69-90, 2006.
 A. K. Smith, R. N. Bolton, and J. Wagner, "A model of customer satisfaction with service encounters involving failure and recovery,” Journal of Marketing Research, vol. 36, pp. 356–372, 1999.
 P. Zoghbi-Manrique-de-Lara, T. Aguiar-Quintana, and M. A. Suárez-Acosta, "A justice framework for understanding how guests react to hotel employee (mis) treatment,” Tourism Management, vol. 36, pp. 143-152, 2013.
 E. A. Lind, L. Kray, and L. Thompson, "The social construction of injustice: Fairness judgments in response to own and other’s unfair treatment by authorities,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, vol. 75, pp. 1-22, 1998.
 B. H. Sheppard, R. J. Lewicki, and J. W. Minton, Organizational justice: The search for fairness in the workplace, New York: Macmillan, 1992.
 R. T. Tyler and H. J., Smith, "Social justice and social movements,” in Handbook of Social Psychology, 4th ed., Ed. D. Gilbert, S.T. Fiske, and G. Lindzey, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998, pp. 595–629.
 E. Walster, G. N. Walster, and E. Berscheid, Equity: Theory and research, Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1978.
 A. L. Chaiken and J. M. Darley, "Victim or perpetrator?: Defensive attribution of responsibility and the need for order and justice,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 25, no. 2, p. 268, 1973.
 J. M. Darley and Latane, B., "Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 8, pp. 377-383, 1968.
 J. Brockner, "Scope of Justice in the Workplace: How Survivors React to Co‐Worker Layoffs,” Journal of social issues, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 95-106, 1990.
 D. P. Skarlicki, J. H. Ellard, and B. R. C., Kelln, "Third-party perceptions of a layoff: Procedural, derogation, and retributive aspects of justice,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 83, pp. 119-127, 1998.
 E. Goffman, "On cooling the mark out: Some aspects of adaptation to failure,” Psychiatry, vol. 15, pp. 451-463, 1952.
 S. Lotz, T.G. Okimoto, T. Schlösser, and D. Fetchenhauer, "Punitive versus compensatory reactions to injustice: Emotional antecedents to third-party interventions,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 477-480, 2011.
 J. W. Van Prooijen, "Retributive versus compensatory justice: Observers’ preferences for punishment in response for criminal offenses,” European Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 40, pp. 72−85, 2010.
 R. L. Greenbaum, M. B. Mawritz, D. M. Mayer, and M. Priesemuth, "To act out, to withdraw, or to constructively resist? Employee reactions to supervisor abuse of customers and the moderating role of employee moral identity,” Human Relations, Online first, 2013.
 R. Folger, R. Cropanzano, and B. Goldman, "What is the relationship between justice and morality,” in Handbook of Organizational Justice, Ed. J. Greenberg and J.A. Colquitt., 2005, pp. 215-246.
 S. J. Bell and B. Mengüç, "The employee-organization relationship, organizational citizenship behaviors, and superior service quality,” Journal of Retailing, vol. 78, pp. 131-46, 2002.
 J. G. Blodgett, D. J. Hill, and S.S. Tax, "The effects of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice on post complaint behavior,” Journal of Retailing, vol. 73, pp. 185-210, 1997.
 G. R. Hancock and R.O. Mueller, "Structural equation modeling: A second course,” Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing, 2006.
 N. M. Puccinelli, "Putting your best face forward: the impact of customer mood on salesperson evaluation,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 156-162, 2006.
 D. E. Severt, The customer’s path to loyalty: a partial test of the relationships of prior experience, justice, and customer satisfaction, Doctoral Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 2002.