Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30296
High Capacity Reversible Watermarking through Interpolated Error Shifting

Authors: Hae-Yeoun Lee

Abstract:

Reversible watermarking that not only protects the copyright but also preserve the original quality of the digital content have been intensively studied. In particular, the demand for reversible watermarking has increased. In this paper, we propose a reversible watermarking scheme based on interpolation-error shifting and error pre-compensation. The intensity of a pixel is interpolated from the intensities of neighboring pixels, and the difference histogram between the interpolated and the original intensities is obtained and modified to embed the watermark message. By restoring the difference histogram, the embedded watermark is extracted and the original image is recovered by compensating for the interpolation error. The overflow and underflow are prevented by error pre-compensation. To show the performance of the method, the proposed algorithm is compared with other methods using various test images.

Keywords: reversible watermarking, high capacity, high quality, interpolated error shifting, Error pre-compensation

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1091444

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1808

References:


[1] I. Cox, M. Miller, J. Bloom, J. Fridrich, T. Kalker, "Digital Watermarking and Steganography", Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2008.
[2] H. Sencar, M. Ramkumar, A. Akansu, "Watermarking Fundamentals and Applications", Elsevier Academic Press, UK, 2004.
[3] K.-S. Kim, M.-J. Lee, H.-Y. Lee, H.-K. Lee, "Reversible Watermarking Exploiting Spatial Correlation between Sub-Sampled Images", Pattern Recognition, Elsevier, vol.42, no.11, pp.3083-3096, 2009.
[4] R. Naskar, R.S. Chakraborty, "Performance of Reversible Digital Image Watermarking under Error-Prone Data Communication: A Simulation-Based Study", IET Image Processing, IET, vol.6, no.6, pp.723-737, 2012.
[5] F. Mintzer, J. Lotspiech, N. Morimoto, "Safeguarding Digital Library Contents and Users: Digital Watermarking", D-Lib Magazine, 1997.
[6] J. Fridrich, J. Goljan, R. Du, "Invertible Authentication", In Proceedings of the SPIE Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents III, San Jose, CA, vol.4314, pp.197-208, 2001.
[7] M. U. Celik, G. Sharma, A. M. Tekalp, E. Saber, "Lossless Generalized-LSB Data Embedding", IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, IEEE, vol.14, no.2, pp.253-266, 2005.
[8] B. Yang, M. Schmucker, C.B.W. Funk, S. Sun, "Integer DCT-Based Reversible Watermarking for Images Using Compounding Technique", In Proceedings of the SPIE Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VI, San Jose, CA, vol.5306, pp.405-415, 2004.
[9] S. Lee, C.D. Yoo, T. Kalker, "Reversible Image Watermarking Based On Integer-To-Integer Wavelet Transform", IEEE Trans. on Information Forensics and Security, IEEE, vol.2, no.3, pp.321-330, 2007.
[10] J. Tian, "Reversible Data Embedding Using a Difference Expansion", IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE, vol.13, no.8, pp.890-896, 2003.
[11] A.M. Alattar, "Reversible Watermark Using the Difference Expansion of a Generalized Integer Transform", IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, IEEE, vol.13, no.8, pp.1147-1156, 2004.
[12] L. Kamstra, H.J.A.M. Heijmans, "Reversible Data Embedding into Images Using Wavelet Techniques and Sorting", IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, IEEE, vol.14, no.12, pp.2082-2090, 2005.
[13] D. Coltuc, "Improved Embedding for Prediction-Based Reversible Watermarking", IEEE Trans. on Information Forensics and Security, IEEE, vol.6(3), pp.873-882, 2011.
[14] Y. Hu, H.-K. Lee, K. Chen, J. Li, "Difference Expansion Based Reversible Watermarking Using Two Embedding Directions", IEEE Trans. on Multimedia, IEEE, vol.10, pp.1500-1512, 2008.
[15] Z. Ni, Y.-Q. Shi, N. Ansari, W. Su, "Reversible Watermarking", IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE, vol.16, no.3, pp.354-362, 2006.
[16] B. Lin, W. Tai, C. Chang, "Multilevel Reversible Watermarking Based On Histogram Modification of Difference Images", Pattern Recognition, Elsevier, vol.41, pp.3582-3591, 2008.
[17] P. Tsai, Y.-C. Hu, H.-L. Yeh, "Reversible Image Hiding Scheme Using Predictive Coding and Histogram Shifting", Signal Processing, Elsevier, vol.89, no.6, pp.1129-1143, 2009.
[18] JBIG-KIT Lossless Image Compression Library, URL http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/mgk25/ jbigkit/