Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31743
Compressive Strength and Microstructure of Hybrid Alkaline Cements

Authors: Z. Abdollahnejad, P. Torgal, J. Barroso Aguiar

Abstract:

Publications on the field of alkali-activated binders, state that this new material is likely to have high potential to become an alternative to Portland cement. Classical alkali-activated cements could be made more eco-efficient if the use of sodium silicate is avoided. Besides, most alkali-activated cements suffer from severe efflorescence originated by the fact that alkaline and/or soluble silicates that are added during processing cannot be totally consumed. This paper presents experimental results on hybrid alkaline cements. Compressive strength results and efflorescence’s observations show that the new mixes already analyzed are promising. SEM results show that no traditional porous ITZ was detected in these binders.

Keywords: Hybrid alkaline cements, Compressive strength, Efflorescence, SEM, ITZ.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1091296

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1899

References:


[1] M. Juenger, F. Winnefeld, J. Provis and J. Ideker,”Advances in alternative cementitious binders”, Cement and Concrete Research Vol. 41, pp.1232-1243 (2011)
[2] J. Damtoft, J.Lukasik, D. Herfort, D. Sorrentino and E. Gartner, "Sustainable development and climate change initiatives”, Cement and Concrete Research Vol.38, pp.115-127 (2008)
[3] M.Taylor and D. Gielen, Energy efficiency and CO2 emissions from the global cement industry, International Energy Agency (2006).
[4] F. Pacheco-Torgal, J. Castro-Gomes and S. Jalali, "Alkali – activated binders: a review Part 1 Historical background, terminology, reaction mechanisms and hydration products”, Construction and Building Materials Vol.22, pp.1305-1314 (2008).
[5] F. Pacheco-Torgal, J. Castro-Gomes and S. Jalali, "Alkali – activated binders: a review Part 2 About materials and binders manufacture”, Construction and Building Materials Vol.22, pp.1315-1322 (2008)
[6] C. Li, H. Sun and L. Li, "A review: The comparison between alkali-activated slag (Si+Ca) and metakaolin (Si+Al) cements”, Cement and Concrete Research Vol.40, pp.1341-1349 (2010).
[7] F. Pacheco-Torgal, Z. Abdollahnejad, S. Miraldo, S. Baklouti and Y.Ding, "An overview on the potential of geopolymers for concrete infrastructure rehabilitation”, Construction and Building Materials Vol.36, pp.1053-1058 (2012).
[8] F. Pacheco-Torgal, Y. Ding, S. Miraldo, Z. Abdollahnejad and J. Labrincha,”Are geopolymers more suitable than Portland cement to produce high volume recycled aggregates HPC ?”, Construction and Building Materials Vol.32, pp.1048-1052 (2012).
[9] J. Davidovits, D. Comrie, J. Paterson and D. Ritcey, "Geopolymeric concretes for environmental protection”, ACI Concrete International Vol.12, pp.30-40 (1990)
[10] P. Duxson, J.Provis, G. Luckey and J.Van Deventer, "The role of inorganic polymer technology in the development of "Green Concrete”. CemConcr Res Vol.37, pp.1590-1597 (2007).
[11] P. Duxson and J. Van Deventer, Geopolymers, Structure, Processing, Properties and Applications, Ed. J. Provis& J. Van Deventer, Woodhead Publishing Limited Abington Hall, Cambridge, UK (2009).
[12] M. Weil, K. Dombrowski and A. Buchawald, Life-cycle analysis of geopolymers, In Geopolymers, Structure, Processing, Properties and Applications, Ed. J. Provis& J. Van Deventer, pp.194-210, Woodhead Publishing Limited Abington Hall, Cambridge, UK (2009).
[13] B. McLellan, R.Williams, J. Lay, A.VanRiessen and G. Corder, "Costs and carbon emissions for geopolymer pastes in comparison to ordinary Portland cement”, Journal of Cleaner Production Vol.19, pp.1080-1090 (2011).
[14] G. Habert, J. de Lacaillerie and N. Roussel, "An environmental evaluation of geopolymer based concrete production: reviewing current research trends”, Journal of Cleaner Production Vol.11, pp.1229-1238 (2011).
[15] F.Pacheco-Torgal, Z. Abdollahnejad, A. Camões, M. Jamshidi and Y. Ding,” Durability of alkali-activated binders. A clear advantage over Portland cement or an unproven issue ?”, Construction and Building Materials Vol.30, pp.400-405 (2012)
[16] J. Provis, Y. Muntingh, R. Lloyd, H. Xu, L. Keyte, L. Lorenzen, P. Krivenko and J. Van Deventer, "Will geopolymers stand the test of time?”, Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings Vol.28, pp.235-248 (2008).
[17] J. Van Deventer, J.Provis and P. Duxson, "Technical and commercial progress in the adoption of geopolymer cement”, Minerals Engineering Vol. 29, pp.89-104 (2012).
[18] F. Skvara, L. Kopecky, V. Smilauer, L. Alberovska and Z. Bittner, "Material and structural characterization of alkali activated low-calcium brown coal fly ash”, Journal of Hazardous Materials Vol.168, pp.711-720 (2008).
[19] F. Skvara, L. Kopecky, V. Smilauer, L. Alberovska and L. Vinsova, "Aluminosilicate polymers – Influence of elevated temperatures, efflorescence”, Ceramics - Silikaty Vol.53, pp.276-282 (2009).
[20] E. Kani, A. Allahverdi and J. Provis, "Efflorescence control in geopolymer binders based on natural pozzolan”, Cement and Concrete Composites Vol.34, pp.25-33 (2011).
[21] Shi, C.; Fernandez-Jimenez, A.; Palomo, A. (2011) New cements for the 21st century: The pursuit of an alternative for Portland cement. Cement and Concrete Research 41, 750-763.
[22] Garcia-Lodeiro, I.; Fernandez-Jimenez, A.; Palomo, A. (2013) Variation in hybrid cemnts over time. Alkaline activation of fly ash-portland cement blends. Concrete Research 52, 112-122.
[23] Zheng, D.; Van Deventer, J.S.L.; Duxson, P. (2007) The dry mix cement composition, methods and systems involving same. International Patent WO 2007/109862 A1
[24] NP EN 450-1, Fly ash for concrete – Part 1: Definition, specifications and conformity criteria
[25] NP EN 206-1: 2007, Concrete: Part 1. Specification, performance, production and conformity.
[26] F. Pacheco-Torgal, J.P. Castro-Gomes, S. Jalali (2007) Investigations about the effect of aggregates on strength and microstructure of geopolymeric mine waste mud binders”, Cement and Concrete Research Vol. 37, 933-941.
[27] H. Xu, J.S.J. Van Deventer, (2000) Thegeopolymerisation of alumino-silicate minerals”, International Journal of Mineral Processing, Vol.59, 247-266.
[28] H. Xu, (2002) The geopolymerisation of alumino-silicate minerals”, PhD Thesis, University of Melbourne
[29] Diamond, S. (1976) C/S mole ratio of CSH gel in a mature C3S paste as determined by EDXA. Cement and concrete Research 6, 413-416
[30] Richardson, I. G.(2000) The nature of the hydration products in hardened cement pastes. Cement and Concrete Composites 22, 97-113.
[31] Macphee, D.E. (1989) Solubility and aging of calcium silicate hydrates in alkaline solutions at 25º C. Journal of American Ceramic Society 72, 646-654.
[32] Garcia-Lodeiro, Fernandez-Jimenez, A.; Palomo, A. (2013) Alkali-activated based concrete, ISBN 978-0-85709-424-7,In Eco-efficient concrete. Geopolymers, Ed. F.Pacheco-Torgal, S.Jalali, J. Labrincha& V.M. John, Woodhead Publishing Limited Abington Hall, Cambridge, UK, p.439-487.