Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30579
Optimal Dynamic Economic Load Dispatch Using Artificial Immune System

Authors: I. A. Farhat


The dynamic economic dispatch (DED) problem is one of the complex constrained optimization problems that have nonlinear, con-convex and non-smooth objective functions. The purpose of the DED is to determine the optimal economic operation of the committed units while meeting the load demand.  Associated to this constrained problem there exist highly nonlinear and non-convex practical constraints to be satisfied. Therefore, classical and derivative-based methods are likely not to converge to an optimal or near optimal solution to such a dynamic and large-scale problem. In this paper, an Artificial Immune System technique (AIS) is implemented and applied to solve the DED problem considering the transmission power losses and the valve-point effects in addition to the other operational constraints. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique, two case studies are considered. The results obtained using the AIS are compared to those obtained by other methods reported in the literature and found better.

Keywords: Dynamic Economic Dispatch (DED), Artificial Immune System (AIS)

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1641


[1] T.A.A. Victoire and A.E. Jeyakumar, "Reserve Constrained Dynamic Dispatch of Units With Valve-Point Effects," Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 20, pp. 1273-1282, 2005.
[2] F.N. Lee and A.M. Breipohl, "Reserve constrained economic dispatch with prohibited operating zones," Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 8, pp. 246-254, 1993.
[3] Zwe-Lee Gaing, "Particle swarm optimization to solving the economic dispatch considering the generator constraints," Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 18, pp. 1187-1195, 2003.
[4] P. Attaviriyanupap, H. Kita, E. Tanaka and J. Hasegawa, "A Hybrid EP and SQP for Dynamic Economic Dispatch with Nonsmooth Fuel Cost Function," Power Engineering Review, IEEE, vol. 22, pp. 77-77, 2002.
[5] D.C. Walters and G.B. Sheble, "Genetic algorithm solution of economic dispatch with valve point loading," Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 8, pp. 1325-1332, 1993.
[6] Hong-Tzer Yang, Pai-Chuan Yang and Ching-Lien Huang, "Evolutionary programming based economic dispatch for units with non-smooth fuel cost functions," Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 11, pp. 112-118, 1996.
[7] K.P. Wong and Y.W. Wong, "Genetic and genetic/simulated-annealing approaches to economic dispatch," Generation, Transmission and Distribution, IEE Proceedings-, vol. 141, pp. 507-513, 1994.
[8] A.J. Wood and B.F. Wollenberg, Power Generation Operation and Control, New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996, pp. 592.
[9] W.G. Wood, "Spinning Reserve Constrained Static and Dynamic Economic Dispatch," Power Apparatus and Systems, IEEE Transactions on, vol. PAS-101, pp. 381-388, 1982.
[10] Zwe-Lee Gaing, "Constrained dynamic economic dispatch solution using particle swarm optimization," in Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2004. IEEE, pp. 153-158 Vol.1, 2004.
[11] W.R. Barcelo and P. Rastgoufard, "Dynamic economic dispatch using the extended security constrained economic dispatch algorithm," Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 12, pp. 961-967, 1997.
[12] R.W. Ferrero and S.M. Shahidehpour, "Dynamic economic dispatch in deregulated systems," International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 19, pp. 433-439, 10. 1997.
[13] T.E. Bechert and H.G. Kwatny, "On the Optimal Dynamic Dispatch of Real Power," Power Apparatus and Systems, IEEE Transactions on, vol. PAS-91, pp. 889-898, 1972.
[14] T.E. Bechert and Nanming Chen, "Area automatic generation control by multi-pass dynamic programming," Power Apparatus and Systems, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 96, pp. 1460-1469, 1977.
[15] Yong-Hua Song, Modern Optimization Techniques in Power Systems, Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999, pp. 287.
[16] J.A. Momoh, R. Adapa and M.E. El-Hawary, "A review of selected optimal power flow literature to 1993. I. Nonlinear and quadratic programming approaches," Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 14, pp. 96-104, 1999.
[17] J.A. Momoh, M.E. El-Hawary and R. Adapa, "A review of selected optimal power flow literature to 1993. II. Newton, linear programming and interior point methods," Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 14, pp. 105-111, 1999.
[18] R. Naresh and J. Sharma, "Two-phase neural network based solution technique for short term hydrothermal scheduling," Generation, Transmission and Distribution, IEE Proceedings-, vol. 146, pp. 657-663, 1999.
[19] M. Basu, "An interactive fuzzy satisfying method based on evolutionary programming technique for multiobjective short-term hydrothermal scheduling," Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 69, pp. 277-285, 5. 2004.
[20] S. Kumar and R. Naresh, "Efficient real coded genetic algorithm to solve the non-convex hydrothermal scheduling problem," International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 29, pp. 738-747, 12. 2007.
[21] Kit Po Wong and Yin Wa Wong, "Short-term hydrothermal scheduling with reservoir volume constraints. I. Simulated annealing approach," Advances in Power System Control, Operation and Management, 1993. APSCOM-93., 2nd International Conference on, pp. 559-564 vol.2, 1993.
[22] N. Sinha and Loi-Lei Lai, "Meta Heuristic Search Algorithms for Short-Term Hydrothermal Scheduling," Machine Learning and Cybernetics, 2006 International Conference on, pp. 4050-4056, 2006.
[23] A.Y. Abdelaziz, M.Z. Kamh, S.F. Mekhamer and M.A.L. Badr, "A hybrid HNN-QP approach for dynamic economic dispatch problem," Electr.Power Syst.Res., vol. 78, pp. 1784-1788, 10. 2008.
[24] A.Y. Abdelaziz, S.F. Mekhamer, M.Z. Kamh and M.A.L. Badr, "A hybrid Hopfield neural network-quadratic programming approach for dynamic economic dispatch problem," in Power System Conference, 2008. MEPCON 2008. 12th International Middle-East, pp. 565-570, 2008.
[25] J. Tippayachai, W. Ongsakul and I. Ngamroo, "Parallel micro genetic algorithm for constrained economic dispatch," Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 17, pp. 790-797, 2002.
[26] X. Yuan, L. Wang, Y. Zhang and Y. Yuan, "A hybrid differential evolution method for dynamic economic dispatch with valve-point effects," Expert Syst.Appl., vol. 36, pp. 4042-4048, 3. 2009.
[27] S. Pothiya, I. Ngamroo and W. Kongprawechnon, "Application of multiple tabu search algorithm to solve dynamic economic dispatch considering generator constraints," Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 49, pp. 506-516, 4. 2008.
[28] S. Endoh, N. Toma and K. Yamada, "Immune algorithm for n-TSP," in Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 1998. 1998 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 3844-3849 vol.4, 1998.
[29] Castro,L.,N.,De and V. Zuben, "Artificial Immune Systems: Part I-Basic Theory and Applications," 1999.
[30] L.N. de Castro and F.J. Von Zuben, "Learning and optimization using the clonal selection principle," Evolutionary Computation, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 6, pp. 239-251, 2002.
[31] Hong-da Liu, Zhong-li Ma, Sheng Liu and Hai Lan, "A New Solution to Economic Emission Load Dispatch Using Immune Genetic Algorithm," Cybernetics and Intelligent Systems, 2006 IEEE Conference on, pp. 1-6, 2006.
[32] Fang Liu, C.Y. Chung, K.P. Wong, Wei Yan and Guoyu Xu, "Hybrid Immune Genetic Method for Dynamic Reactive Power Optimization," Power System Technology, 2006. PowerCon 2006. International Conference on, pp. 1-6, 2006.
[33] Dong Hwa Kim and Jae Hoon Cho, "Advanced Bacterial Foraging and Its Application Using Fuzzy Logic Based Variable step Size and Clonal Selection of Immune Algorithm," Hybrid Information Technology, 2006. ICHIT '06. International Conference on, vol. 1, pp. 293-298, 2006.
[34] R. Fletcher, Practical Methods of Optimization, New York: Wiley, 2000, pp. 450.
[35] M.E. El-Hawary and G.S. Christensen, Optimal Economic Operation of Electric Power Systems, New York: Academic Press, 1979, pp. 278.
[36] M. Basu, "Artificial immune system for fixed head hydrothermal power system," Energy, vol. 36, pp. 606-612, 1. 2011.
[37] M. Basu, "Dynamic economic emission dispatch using nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II," International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 30, pp. 140-149, 2. 2008.