Commenced in January 2007
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The American Christian Right Women’s Advocacy Groups and US Foreign Policy

Authors: Mohd Afandi Salleh

Abstract:

The paper examines two women advocacy groups of the American Christian Right, namely: Concerned Women for America (CWA) and Eagle Forum. Focus will be placed on their interests in American foreign policy and global social policy particularly during the George W. Bush administration. It examines the organizations’ historical backgrounds, and study their agendas, issues and forms of international engagement which relate to American foreign policy. The paper shows that the Christian Right movement is not a monolithic movement in term of its focus, objectives or activism. Despite their diversity, various actions of these advocacy groups have strengthened the role of the Christian Right in exerting its influence on US foreign policy. Finally, it contends that, although traditionally the Christian Right advocacy groups’ motives for activism are strongly based on the Bible and Judeo–Christian values, the arguments and ideas behind their present struggle are presented in a very nationalistic, secular and pragmatic vein.

Keywords: US foreign policy, Christian Right, Concerned Women for America, Eagle Forum, Global social policy

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1336004

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References:


[1] See for example John C. Green, Mark J. Rozel, and Clyde Wilcox, The Christian Right in American Politics (Washington D.C, 2003), James L. Guth et al., "Onward Christian Soldiers: Religious Activist Groups in American Politics," in Interest Group Politics, ed. Allan J. Cigler and Burdett A. Loomis (Washington, D.C., 1995), Matthew C. Moen, "Status Politics and the Political Agenda of the Christian Right," The Sociological Quarterly 29 (1988), Matthew C. Moen, The Christian Right and Congress (Tuscaloosa, 1989), Clyde Wilcox, "Evangelicals and the Moral Majority," Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 28 (1989), Clyde Wilcox, God's Warrior: The Christian Right in Twentieth-Century America (Baltimore, 1992), Clyde Wilcox and Leopoldo Gomez, "The Christian Right and the Pro-Life Movement : An Analysis of the Sources of Political Support," Review of Religious Research 31 (1990).
[2] William Martin, "The Christian Right and American Foreign Policy," Foreign Policy Spring (1999).
[3] For a detailed study on this organization refer to Clyde Wilcox, "Evangelicals and the Moral Majority," Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 28 (1989).
[4] Left Behind is a series of 16 bestselling novels co-authored by Tim LaHaye and Jerry B. Jenkins. Over 11 million copies have been sold in the series. See Left Behind official website at Left Behind Series (Leftbehind.Com, 2009 (cited 25 November 2009)); available from http://www.leftbehind.com/01_product/browse.asp?section=Books
[5] Janice Shaw Crouse, interview with author, 15 May 2009, Washington, D.C. Janice Crouse is a Director for the Beverly LaHaye Institute, and a Senior Fellow of CWA. She was a former speech writer for President George H. Bush (Bush senior). She has twice served President George W. Bush as an official delegate to the UN (2002 and 2003).
[6] Stevan Gardiner, Feminism and Women's Studies: Concerned Women for America: A Case Study (2008 (cited 20 April 2008)); available from http://feminism.eserver.org/cw-of-a.txt
[7] Ibid.((cited)).
[8] Concerned Women for America : About CWA ((cited 20 April 2008)); available from http:///www.cwfa.org/about.asp.
[9] Janice Shaw Crouse, interview with author, 15 May 2009, Washington, D.C.
[10] Concerned Women for America (Right Web, 2004 (cited 26 April 2008)); available from http://rightweb.irc-online.org/profile/1459
[11] Janice Shaw Crouse, interview with author, 15 May 2009, Washington, D.C.
[12] Ibid.
[13] Right Wing Organizations: Concerned Women for America (People for the American Way, (cited 20 April 2008)); available from http://www.pfaw.org/general/default.aspx?oid=22376.
[14] Ibid.
[15] Janice Shaw Crouse, interview with author, 15 May 2009, Washington, D.C.
[16] Concerned Women for America : About CWA ((cited 20 April 2008)); available from http:///www.cwfa.org/about.asp.
[17] Janice Shaw Crouse, interview with author, 15 May 2009, Washington, D.C.
[18] Right Wing Organizations : Concerned Women for America (People For The American Way, (cited 20 April 2008)); available from http://www.pfaw.org/general/default.aspx?oid=22376.
[19] Janice Shaw Crouse, interview with author, 15 May 2009, Washington, D.C.
[20] Ibid.
[21] Jennifer Butler, New Sheriff in Town: The Christian Right Nears Major Victory at the United Nations (Political Research Associate, 26 April 2008 (cited 2 16)); available from http://www/irc-onine.org/ magazine/v16n2/v16n2.pdf.
[22] Jennifer Butler, For Faith and Family: Christian Right Advocacy at the United Nations (Public Eye, 2000 (cited 20 April 2008)); available from http:///www.irc.online.org/magazine/v16n2/v16n2.pdf.
[23] Doris Buss and Didi Herman, Globalizing Family Values: The Christian Right in International Politics (Minneapolis, 2003), p. XV.
[24] Laurel Macleod and Catherina Hulburt, Exposing CEDAW: The United Nations Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (2000 (cited 6 April 2008)); available from http://www.cwfa.org.
[25] Thomas L. Jipping and Wendy Wright, CEDAW Treaty Would Undermine American Sovereignty (2007 (cited 2 May 2008)); available from http://www.cufa.org.
[26] Right Wing Organizations : Concerned Women for America (People For The American Way, (cited 20 April 2008)); available from http://www.pfaw.org/general/default.aspx?oid=22376.
[27] Janice Shaw Crouse, Fact Sheet and Talking Points: Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (Concerned Women For America, 2007 (cited 2 May 2008)); available from http://www.cwfa.org/ printerfriendly.asp?id=1266&department=bli&categoryid=nation
[28] Janice Shaw Crouse, interview with author, 15 May 2009, Washington, D.C.
[29] See http://www.humantrafficking.org/countries/ united_states_of_america.
[30] Janice Shaw Crouse, interview with author, 15 May 2009, Washington, D.C.
[31] Lanier Swann, CWA Strongly Opposes U.S. Participation in the Law of the Sea Treaty (Concerned Women for America, 2005 (cited 2 May 2008)); available from http://www.cwa.org.asp?id=7511&department=cwa&categoryid=nation
[32] Sarah Rode, Law of the Sea Treaty in a Sea of Anti-American Sentiments (Concerned Women for America Legislative Action Committee, 2007 (cited 2 May 2008)); available from http://www.cwalac.org/article_494.shtml.
[33] Ibid.
[34] See Beverly LaHaye Institute (Concerned Women For America, 2009 (cited 26 November 2009)); available from http://www.cwfa.org/bli/
[35] Janice Shaw Crouse, interview with author, 15 May 2009, Washington, D.C.
[36] Ibid.
[37] What is Project 535 (Concerned Women for America, 2009 (cited 25 November 2009)); available from http://www.cwalac.org/ whatis535.shtml.
[38] Colleen Holmes, interview with author, May 2009, Washington D.C.
[39] Sara Diamond, Roads to Dominion: Right-Wing Movements and Political Power in the United States (New York, 1995), p. 246.
[40] Phyllis Schlafly, "Understanding Feminists and Their Fantasies," The Phyllis Schlafly Report, December 2002 Available from http://www.eagleforum.org/psr/2002/dec02/psrdec02.shtml.
[41] Ibid.
[42] International Women's Day: Code for "Advancing Radical Feminism around the Globe" (Eagle Forum, 2008 (cited 19 June 2010)); available from http://www.eagleforum.org/topics/Feminism/press-release/03-07-08.
[43] Colleen Holmes, interview with author, 4 May 2009, Washington D.C.
[44] About Eagle Forum (Eagle Forum, 2010 (cited November 2009)); available from http://www.eagleforum.org/misc/desript.html.
[45] Ibid.
[46] Eagle Forum (People for the American Way, (cited 17 June 2008)); available from http://www.pfaw.org/pfaw/general/ defaukt.aspx?oid=3152.
[47] Susan E. Marshall, "Who Speaks for American Women? The Future of Antifeminism," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 515 (May, 1991), p. 57.
[48] Ibid.
[49] Quoted in Bill Berkowitz, Phyllis Schlafly's 50-Year Crusade (Working Assets, 2006 (cited February 2010)); available from http://web.archive.org/web/20061201062526/www.workingforchange.
[50] Marie Shear, "Review: The Right Woman: Phyllis Schlafly and Grassroots Conservatism: A Woman's Crusade by Donald T. Critchlow," The Women's Review of Books 23 (May-June, 2006), p. 29.
[51] Barry D. Friedman, "Book Review: Phyllis Schlafly and Grassroots Conservatism: A Women's Crusade by Donald T. Critchlow," International Social Science Review 81 (2005), p. 77-78.
[52] Colleen Holmes, interview with author, 4 May 2009, Washington D.C.
[53] Phyllis Schlafly, "The International Criminal Court," The Phyllis Schlafly Report, June 2002 Available from http://www.eagleforum.org/ psr/2002/june02/psrjune02.shtml.
[54] The House of Representatives approved the Central America-Dominican Republic-United States Free Trade Agreement, CAFTA on 27th July 2005. CAFTA is based on the model of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The agreement will expand corporate rights over some of the poorest countries in the region, including Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Honduras and the Dominican Republic.
[55] The Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) is an attempt to expand the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) to every country in Central America, South America and the Caribbean, except Cuba. Negotiations began right after the completion of NAFTA in 1994 and were supposed to have been completed by 1st January 2005.
[56] Action (Eagle Forum of California, 2002 (cited 16 Mac 2010)); available from http://www.eagleforumofcalifornia.com/UnitedNations.htm
[57] Phyllis Schlafly, "Kyoto's Goal = Kick the U.S.," The Phyllis Schlafly Report, July 2001 Available from http://www.eagleforum.org/psr/2001/ july01/psrjuly01.shtml.
[58] Ibid.
[59] Ibid.
[60] Jason Ralph, "To Usher in a New Paradigm? President Bush's Foreign Policy Legacy," in Assessing the George W. Bush Presidency: A Tale of Two Terms, ed. Andrew Wroe and Jon Herbert (Edinburgh, 2009), p. 79
[61] Phyllis Schlafly, "Why No Defense Against Missiles?," The Phyllis Schlafly Report, November 1996 Available from http://www.eagleforum.org/psr/1996/nov96/psrnov96.html.
[62] Phyllis Schlafly, "The Threat of Terrorism is From Illegal Aliens," The Phyllis Schlafly Report, October 2001 Available from http://www.eagleforum.org/psr/2001/oct01/psroct01.shtml.
[63] Eagle Forum, Eagle Forum Letter to Congress (Advisory Committee on Congressional Internet Caucus, 2001 (cited 6 March 2010)); available from http://www.netcaucus.org/books/surveillance2001/ docs/Eagle_Forum_Letr.pdf.
[64] Phyllis Schlafly, "Time to Stand Up for America," The Phyllis Schlaffly Report, June 2007 Available at http://www.eagleforum.org/psr/2007/ june07/psrjune07.html.
[65] Ibid.
[66] Ibid.
[67] Eagle Forum Priorities for the 110th Congress (Indiana Eagle Forum, 2008 (cited 8 March 2010)); available from http://www.indianaeagleforum.org/images/Quarter_1_2008.pdf.