Patents as Indicators of Innovative Environment
The main problem is that there is a very low innovation performance in Latvia. Since Latvia is a Member State of European Union, it also shall have to fulfill the set targets and to improve innovative results.Universities are one of the main performers to provide innovative capacity of country. University, industry and government need to cooperate for getting best results.The intellectual property is one of the indicators to determine innovation level in the country or organization, and patents are one of the characteristics of intellectual property.The objective of the article is to determine indicators characterizing innovative environment in Latvia and influence of the development of universities on them.The methods that will be used in the article to achieve the objectives are quantitative and qualitative analysis of the literature, statistical data analysis and graphical analysis methods.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1089655Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1407
 Al-Aali, A. Y., & Teece, D. J. (2013). Towards the (Strategic) Management of Intellectual Property: Retrospective and Prospective. California Management Review, 55(4), 15-30.
 Brint, S. A Priori and Empirical Approaches to the Classification of Higher Education Institutions: The United States Case. – Pensamiento Educativo. Revista de Investigación Educacional Latinoamericana 2013, vol. 50, No. 1, 2013, pp. 96-114.
 Chen, J. K., & Chen, I. (2008). VIKOR Method for Selecting Universities for Future Development Based on Innovation. Online Submission.
 Cotropia, C.A. What is the "invention”?, in William and Mary Law Review, vol. 53, No. 6, 2012, pp. 1855-1914.
 Dzisah J., Etzkowitz H. Triple helix circulation: the heart of innovation and development. – International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 7, No. 2, 2008, pp. 101 – 115.
 Etzkowitz H., Zhou C. Triple Helix twins: innovation and sustainability. - Science and Public Policy, vol. 33, No. 1, 2006, pp. 77–83.
 Etzkowitz, H., & Leydesdorff, L. (2000). The dynamics of innovation: from National Systems and "Mode 2” to a Triple Helix of university–industry–government relations. Research policy, 29(2), 109-123.
 Eurostat Statistics Database. European Commission - http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/
 General Information Concerning Patents. United States Patent and Trademark Office, 2011, pp. 36.
 Goldstein, H. A. (2010). The ‘entrepreneurial turn’ and regional economic development mission of universities. The Annals of Regional Science, 44 (1), 83-109.
 Hjorth, D. (2003a). Rewriting Entrepreneurship – for a new perspective on organizational creativity, Liber – Abstrakt – Copenhagen Business School.
 Idris, K. Wipo Intellectual Property Handbook: Policy, Law and Use. Geneva: WIPO publication, 2008, (489).
 Innovation Union Scoreboard 2013. – European Commission, 2013, http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/innovation/files/ius-2013_en.pdf
 Kartusa, R., & Kukrusb, A. (2013). Innovation, product development and patents at universities. Estonian Journal of Engineering, 19(1), 4-17.
 Kristapsons J., Tjuņina Ē., Kozlovskis M. Patentu statistika: Skats uz Latvijas zinātni, Zinātnes Vēstnesis, 20th June 2011, http://www.lza.lv/ index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1245&Itemid=47.
 Kyrö P., Mattila J. Towards future university by integrating Entrepreneurial and the 3rd Generation University. – 2012.
 Lanjouw, J. O., Pakes, A., & Putnam, J. (1998). How to count patents and value intellectual property: The uses of patent renewal and application data. The Journal of Industrial Economics, 46(4), 405-432
 Latvian Convergence Programme for the years 2013–2016. - http://ec.europa.eu/europe2020/pdf/nd/cp2013_latvia_lv.pdf
 Lavas J. Patents. – General Library, pp. 6 – http://www.library.auckland.ac.nz/subject-guides/bus/docs/patents.pdf
 Lee P. Patents and the University. – Duke Law Journal, vol. 63, No. 1, 2013, pp. 87
 Leydesdorff L., Meyer M. Triple Helix indicators of knowledge-based innovation systems. – Research policy Vol. 35, 2006, pp. 21
 Online Etymology Dictionary - http://www.etymonline.com/ index.php?term=patent
 Patents and Innovation: Trends and Policy Challenges. – Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 2004.
 Patents: Basic Facts. Intellectual Property Office, United Kingdom, 2013, pp. 20
 Program for modernizing higher education in Europe. Citizens’ summary. – European Commission, http://ec.europa.eu/education/ higher-education/doc/cs_lv.pdf
 Scientific performance of HEIs: Survey of year 2012. Statistics and research about science. – Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Latvia, http://izm.izm.gov.lv/upload_file/ Zinatne/AZD_2012.pdf
 Strategy of Riga Technical University, year 2013 – 2030.
 Targets of "Europe 2020”. – European Commission, http://ec.europa.eu/europe2020/targets/eu-targets/index_lv.htm
 The Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. – Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching - http://classifications.carnegiefoundation.org/
 Van den Belt H., Rip A. The Nelson-Winter-Dosi Model and Synthetic Dye Chemistry, 1988, pp. 135 - 158
 What is a patent? – Intellectual Property Office of Singapoure. – http://www.ipos.gov.sg/AboutIP/TypesofIPWhatisIntellectualProperty/Whatisapatent.aspx
 What is a patent? – World Intellectual Property Organization, Switzerland, http://www.wipo.int/export/sites/www/freepublications/en/patents/450/wipo_pub_l450pa.pdf
 What is a patent? Intellectual property and science. – Thomson Reuters - http://ip-science.thomsonreuters.com/support/patents/patinf/patentfaqs/patent/
 What is a patent? Intellectual Property Office, United Kingdom – http://www.ipo.gov.uk/p-whatis.htm
 Wissema, J. G. (2009). Towards the third generation university: managing the university in transition. Edward Elgar Publishing.