Fermentable Sugars from Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass for Bioethanol Production
This study investigated the effect of a dilute acid, lime and ammonia aqueous pretreatment on the fermentable sugars conversion from empty fruit bunch (EFB) biomass. The dilute acid treatment was carried out in an autoclave, at 121ºC with 4% of sulfuric acid. In the lime pretreatment, 3 wt % of calcium hydroxide was used, whereas the third method was done by soaking EFB with 28% ammonia solution. The EFB biomass was then subjected to a two-stage-acid hydrolysis process. Subsequently, the hydrolysate was fermented by using instant baker’s yeast to produce bioethanol. The highest glucose yield was 890 mg/g of biomass, obtained from the sample which underwent lime pretreatment. The highest bioethanol yield of 6.1mg/g of glucose was achieved from acid pretreatment. This showed that the acid pretreatment gave the most fermentable sugars compared to the other two pretreatments.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1089321Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
 Y. Sun and J. J. Cheng, "Dilute acid pretreatment of rye straw and bermudagrass for ethanol production”, Bioresource Technology, vol. 96, pp.1599-1606, 2005.
 B. A. Martin, and A. Sjode, "Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of agriculture and agro-industrial residue for ethanol production”, Application Biochemical Biotechnology, vol.137, pp.339-352. 2007.
 Ballesteros, M. Ballesteros, and P. Manzanare, "Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of cardoon for ethanol production”, Biochem Engineering Journal, vol. 42, pp.81-91. 2008.
 J. J. V. Radillo, M. A. Ruiz-López, R. R. Macías, L.B. Ramírez, P.M. García-López and F. A. L. Toral, "Fermentable sugars from lupinus rotundiflorus biomass by concentrated hydrochloric acid hydrolysis”, BioResources, vol. 6(1), pp. 344-355, 2011.
 L. Jianga, Z. Fanga, X, Li, J. Luoa, and S. Fana. "Short Communication: Combination of dilute acid and ionic liquid pretreatments of sugarcane bagasse for glucose by enzymatic hydrolysis”, Process Biochemistry, vol. 48, pp. 1942–1946, 2013.
 T. Marzialetti, M.B.V. Olarte and C. Sievers, "Dilute acid hydrolysis of loblolly pine: A comprehensive approach”, Industrial Engineering Chemical Resource, vol. 47, pp.7131-7140. 2008.
 P. Kumar, D. M. Barrett, M. J. Delwiche, and P.Stroeve, "Methods for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for efficient hydrolysis and biofuel production”, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., pp. 1-18, March 2009.
 Y. Zheng, Z. Pan and R. Zhang, "Overview of biomass pretreatment for cellulosic ethanol production”, Int.J. Agric. & Biol. Eng.,vol.2 (3), pp.51-68, Sept. 2009.
 T.H. Kim, J.S. Kim and C. Sunwoo. "Pretreatment of corn stover by aqueous by aqueous ammonia”. Bioresource Technology, vol. 90, pp.39-47, 2003.
 Y.H, Jung, I.J Kim, J.I. Han, I.G, Choi, K.H, Kim. "Aqueous ammonia pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunches for ethanol production”, Bioresource Technology, vol. 120 (20),pp. 9806-9809, 2011.
 S. Kim and M. T. Holtzapple. "Lime pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover”, Bioresource Technology, vol. 96, pp-1994-2006, 2005.
 National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). "Determination of structural carbohydrates and lignin in biomass”, Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP), 2008.
 S.X. Chin, C.H.Chia and S. Zakaria, "Production of reducing sugars from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) cellulose fibres via acid hydrolysis”, Bioresource, vol.8 (1), pp. 447 – 460, 2013.
 G. M. Walker, Yeast Physiology and Biotechnology, West Sussex, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 1998, pp.69-71.