The Integrated Management of Health Care Strategies and Differential Diagnosis by Expert System Technology: A Single-Dimensional Approach
The Integrated Management of Child illnesses (IMCI) and the surveillance Health Information Systems (HIS) are related strategies that are designed to manage child illnesses and community practices of diseases. However, both strategies do not function well together because of classification incompatibilities and, as such, are difficult to use by health care personnel in rural areas where a majority of people lack the basic knowledge of interpreting disease classification from these methods. This paper discusses a single approach on how a stand-alone expert system can be used as a prompt diagnostic tool for all cases of illnesses presented. The system combines the action-oriented IMCI and the disease-oriented HIS approaches to diagnose malaria and typhoid fever in the rural areas of the Niger-delta region.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1073463Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
 Rowe A. K., et al, "Linking the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) and health information system (HIS) classifications: issues and options", Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, 1999, 77(12):988-995. Source:http://whqlibdoc.who.int/bulletin/1999/Vol77 No12/bulletin 1999 77(12) 988-995.pdf (online) (Accessed April 27, 2008).
 Webster. D, "Malaria Kills One Child Every 30 Seconds", Journal of Public Health Policy, Vol. 22, No. 1 (2001), pp. 23-33.
 ROLLBACKMALARIA.ORG http://www.rollbackmalaria.org (online) (Accessed January 09, 2008).
 Adam Hart-Davies, "What Wateraid Does For Us", Oasis-the Wateraid journal, Spring/Summer2006,pp.6-8 Source: http://www.wateraid.org(online) (AccessedOctober 15, 2006).
 Tanyigna et al, "Comparison of blood, bone marrow aspirate, stool and urine cultures in the diagnosis of enteric fever", Niger J Med. 2001 Jan- Mar; 10(1):21-4.
 WHO/USAID, "New perspectives: Malaria Diagnosis", Report of a jointWHO/USAID informal consultation 25-27, 1999. Source: http://www.who.int/tdr/cd_publications/pdf/malaria_diagnosis.pdf (online) (Accessed December 01, 2007).
 Bojang et al, "A prospective evaluation of a clinical algorithm for diagnosis of malaria in Gambian Children", Tropical medicine and International health, vol. 5 No.4 April 2000, pp. 231-236.
 Chandramohan, D., et al, "A clinical algorithm for the diagnosis ofmalaria: results of an evaluation in an area of low endemicity", Tropical Medicine and International Health, Vol. 6, No 7, July 2001. pp. 505-510.
 Anigbogu, S., et al, "Artificial Intelligence-Based Medical Diagnostic Expert System for Malaria and the Related Ailments", Journal of Computer Science & Its Applications, June 2006, Vol. 12 No. 1, Source:http://www.ncs.org.ng/pdf/Malaria%201.pdf (online) (Accessed March 08, 2008).
 Koum, G., et al, "Design of a Two-level Adaptive Multi-Agent System for Malaria Vector driven by an ontology", BMC Med Inform Decis Mark. 2007; 7:19. Source:http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/ articlerender.fcgi?artid = 1925067 (online) (Accessed March 08, 2008).
 Walter, B., In: "$100 Laptop News for the Community ", OLPC News 2007, One Laptop per Child. Source: http://laptop.org, (online)(Accessed November 02, 2007).
 Dike et al; "Influence of education and knowledge on perceptions and practices to control malaria in Southeast Nigeria", Social science and medicine 63, July 2006, pp. 103-106.
 Simoes et al, "Performance of health workers after training in integrated management of childhood illness in Gondar, Ethiopia: Bulletin of the World Health Organization", 1997, 75 (Suppl. 1), pp. 43-53.
 Darlington, K., In: "The Essence of Expert Systems", 2005, pp. 110-133, Pearson Education Ltd.
 Winston. P. H., Artificial Intelligence 3rd ed. 1992, pp. 129-132, Addison Wesley.
 Shortliffe, E. & Buchanan, B., "A Model of Inexact Reasoning in Medicine", in: "Rule-Based Expert Systems: The MYCIN Experiments of the Stanford Heuristic Programming Project", (Ed: Buchanan, B. & Shortliffe, E.), Chap. 11, pp 233-262, 1984, AAAI Press.
 Frawley W., et al, "Knowledge Discovery in Databases: An Overview", Source:http://www.egeen.ee/u/vilo/edu/200304/DM_seminar_2003_II/A pplications/frawley92knowledge.pdf (online) (Accessed March 08, 2008).
 Rafael M. E., et al, "Reducing the burden of childhood malaria in Africa: the role of improved diagnostics", Nature , 39-48 (23 November 2006) | doi:10.1038/nature05445; Published online 22 November 2006. Source:http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v444/n1s/pdf/nature 05445.pdf (online)(Accessed May 25, 2008).