Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 31108
Optimization of Some Process Parameters to Produce Raisin Concentrate in Khorasan Region of Iran
Abstract:Raisin Concentrate (RC) are the most important products obtained in the raisin processing industries. These RC products are now used to make the syrups, drinks and confectionery productions and introduced as natural substitute for sugar in food applications. Iran is a one of the biggest raisin exporter in the world but unfortunately despite a good raw material, no serious effort to extract the RC has been taken in Iran. Therefore, in this paper, we determined and analyzed affected parameters on extracting RC process and then optimizing these parameters for design the extracting RC process in two types of raisin (round and long) produced in Khorasan region. Two levels of solvent (1:1 and 2:1), three levels of extraction temperature (60°C, 70°C and 80°C), and three levels of concentration temperature (50°C, 60°C and 70°C) were the treatments. Finally physicochemical characteristics of the obtained concentrate such as color, viscosity, percentage of reduction sugar, acidity and the microbial tests (mould and yeast) were counted. The analysis was performed on the basis of factorial in the form of completely randomized design (CRD) and Duncan's multiple range test (DMRT) was used for the comparison of the means. Statistical analysis of results showed that optimal conditions for production of concentrate is round raisins when the solvent ratio was 2:1 with extraction temperature of 60°C and then concentration temperature of 50°C. Round raisin is cheaper than the long one, and it is more economical to concentrate production. Furthermore, round raisin has more aromas and the less color degree with increasing the temperature of concentration and extraction. Finally, according to mentioned factors the concentrate of round raisin is recommended.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1073315Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1364
 L.Saywell, " The effect of figs and small amounts of raisins on urinary acidity by lawewnceg," JN the Journal of Nutrition,1932, pp.518-525.
 S.W.Sanders," Using prune juice concentrate in whole wheat bread and other bakery products," Creative Food Consultants Discovery Bay, CA 94514.
 D. Sabanis, C. Tzia and S. Papadakis," Effect of Different Raisin Juice Preparations on Selected Properties of Gluten-Free Bread" Food Bioprocess Technol , 2008, pp.374-383.
 B. Zhao, C. A. Hall, "Composition and antioxidant activity of raisin extracts obtained from various solvents," Food Chemistry, 2008, pp. 511-518.
 Y. Kima, S. R. Hertzlerb, H. K. Byrnec, C. O. Matternc," Raisins are a low to moderate glycemic index food with a correspondingly low insulin index," Nutrition Research, 2008, pp. 304-308.
 Jehad-e-Keshavarzi, Agriculture Statistical, 2006, Vol 1,2.
 Iranian Standard and Industrial Research Institute, Raisin, Characteristics and Test Methods, 2002, pp.1-18.
 USDA FAS Production, Supply, and Distribution Data, 2004.
 A. Simsek, N. Art─▒kb and E. Baspinar," Detection of raisin concentrate (Pekmez) adulteration by regression analysis method", Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 2004, pp.155-163.
 R. Hoseini, "Conventional methods in food stocks analysis," Shiraz University Press, 1999, pp.117-123.
 M. Saiedi Asl, "Introduction of Laboratory General and Food Microbiology," Arzhand Press, 2000, pp.10-68.
 A. Agah, "Raisin Test; Characteristics and Methods," Standard and Industrial Research Institute of Khorasan, 1997, pp.1-25