Characterisation of Hydrocarbons in Atmospheric Aerosols from Different European Sites
The concentrations of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in atmospheric aerosol samples collected at a rural site in Hungary (K-puszta, summer 2008), a boreal forest (Hyytiälä, April 2007) and a polluted rural area in Italy (San Pietro Capofiume, Po Valley, April 2008). A clear distinction between “clean" and “polluted" periods was observed. Concentrations obtained for Hyytiälä are significantly lower than those for the other two sites. Source reconciliation was performed using diagnostic parameters, such as the carbon preference index and ratios between PAH. The presence of an unresolved complex mixture of hydrocarbons, especially for the Finnish and Italian samples, is indicative of petrogenic inputs. In K-puszta, the aliphatic hydrocarbons are dominated by leaf wax n-alkanes. The long range transport of anthropogenic pollution contributed to the Finnish aerosol. Industrial activities and vehicular emissions represent major sources in San Pietro Capofiume. PAH in K-puszta consist of both pyrogenic and petrogenic compounds.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1329358Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1646
 Y. Ming and V. Ramaswamy, "Nonlinear climate and hydrological responses to aerosol effects." J. Climate 22, 2009, pp. 1329-1339.
 C. A. Pope III, M. Ezzati and D.W. Dockery, "Fine-particulate air pollution and life expectancy in the United States." New Engl. J. Med. 360, 2009, pp. 376-386.
 C. Alves, "Characterisation of solvent extractable organic constituents in atmospheric particulate matter: an overview". Ann. Brazil. Acad. Sci. 80, 2008, pp. 21-82.
 A. Gelencsér, T. Barcza, G. Kiss, ├ü. Moln├ír, J. Hlavay and E. Mész├íros, "Distribution of n-alkanes and PAHs in atmospheric aerosols." Atmos. Res. 46, 1998, pp. 223-231.
 S. D. Shah, T. A. Ogunyoku, J.W. Miller and D. R. Cocker, "On-road emission rates of PAH and n-alkane compounds from heavy-duty diesel vehicles." Environ. Sci. Technol. 39, 2005, pp. 5276-5284.
 B. Zielinska, J. Sagebiel, J. D. McDonald, K. Whitney and D. R. Lawson, "Emission rates and comparative chemical composition from selected in-use diesel and gasoline-fueled vehicles." J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 54, 2004, pp. 1138-1150.
 L. Zou and S. Atkinson, "Characterising vehicle emissions from the burning of biodiesel made from vegetable oil." Environ. Technol. 24, 2003, pp. 1253-1260.
 B. Armstrong, E. Hutchinson, J. Unwin and T. Fletcher, "Lung cancer risk after exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a review and meta-analysis." Environ. Health Perspect. 112, 2004, pp. 970-978.
 G. C. Fang, K. F. Chang, C. Lu and H. Bai, "Toxic equivalency factors study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Taichung City, Taiwan." Toxicol. Ind. Health. 18, 2002, pp. 279-288.
 C. C. Lin, S. J. Chen, K. L. Huang, W. J. Lee, W. Y Lin, J. H. Tsai and H. C. Chaung, "PAHs, PAH-induced carcinogenic potency, and particleextract- induced cytotoxicity of traffic-related nano/ultrafine particles." Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 2008, pp. 4229-4235.
 P. Gerde, B. A. Muggenburg, M. L. Lundborg and A. R. Dahl, "The rapid alveolar absorption of diesel soot-adsorbed benzo(a)pyrene: bioavailability, metabolism and dosimetry of an inhaled particlecarcinogen." Carcinogenesis. 22, 2001, pp. 741-749.
 R. Chirico, P. Spezzano and D. Cataldi, "Gas-particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during the spring and the summer in a suburban site near major traffic arteries." Polycycl. Aromat. Comp. 27, 2007, pp. 401-423.
 Y. Tasdemir and F. Esen, "Urban air PAHs: Concentrations, temporal changes and gas/particle partitioning at a traffic site in Turkey." Atmos. Res. 84, 2007, pp. 1-12.
 C. Alves and C. Pio, "Secondary organic compounds in atmospheric aerosols: speciation and formation mechanisms." J. Brazil. Chem. Soc. 16, 2005, pp. 1017-1029.
 T. S. Oliveira, C. A. Pio, C. A. Alves, A. J. D. Silvestre, M. Evtyugina, J. V. Afonso, P. Fialho, M. Legrand, H. Puxbaum and A. Gelencsér, "Seasonal variation of particulate lipophilic organic compounds at nonurban sites in Europe." J. Geophys. Res. 112, D23S09, 2007.
 C. Alves, Origin and composition of organic matter present in atmospheric aerosols, PhD Thesis, University of Aveiro, Portugal, 2001, p. 198.
 A. Carvalho, Characterisation of carbonaceous aerosols in the atmosphere - secondary and water soluble compounds, PhD Thesis, University of Aveiro, Portugal, 2003.
 A. Gogou, M. Apostolaki and E. Stephanou, "Determination of organic molecular markers in marine aerosols and sediments: one- step flash chromatography compound class fractionation and capillary gas chromatographic analysis." J. Chromatogr. A, 799, 1998, pp. 215-231.
 W. F. Rogge, L. M. Hildemann, M. A. Mazurek and G. R. Cass, "Sources of fine organic aerosol. 2. Noncatalyst and catalyst-equipped automobiles and heavy-duty diesel trucks." Environ. Sci. Technol. 27, 1993a, pp. 636-651.
 J. J. Schauer, M. J. Kleeman, G. R. Cass and B. R. T. Simoneit, "Measurement of emissions from air pollution sources. 2. C-1 through C-30 organic compounds from medium duty diesel trucks." Environ. Sci. Technol. 33, 1999, pp. 1578-1587.
 W. F. Rogge, L. M. Hildemann, M. A. Mazurek and G. R. Cass, "Sources of fine organic aerosol. 8. Boilers burning no. 2 distillate fuel oil." Environ. Sci. Technol. 31, 1997, pp. 2731-2737.
 S. Brandenberger, M. Mohr, K. Grob and H. P. Neukom, "Contribution of unburned lubricating oil and diesel fuel to particulate emission from passenger cars." Atmos. Environ. 39, 2005, pp. 6985-6994.
 H. Sakurai, H. J. Tobias, K. Park, D. Zarling, K. S. Docherty, D. B. Kittelson, P. H. McMurry and P. J. Ziemann, "On-line measurements of diesel nanoparticle composition and volatility." Atmos. Environ. 37, 2003, pp. 1199-1210.
 W. F. Rogge, L. M. Hildemann, M. A Mazurek, G. R. Cass and B. R. T. Simoneit, "Sources of fine organic aerosol. 4. Particulate abrasion products from leaf surfaces of urban plants." Environ. Sci. Technol. 27, 1993b, pp. 2700-2711.
 B. R. T. Simoneit, "Biomass burning: a review of organic tracers for smoke from incomplete combustion." Appl. Geochem. 17, 2002, pp. 129-162.
 P. Anttila, T. Rissanen, M. Shimmo, M. Kallio, T. Hyötyl├ñinen, M. Kulmala and M. L. Riekkola, "Organic compounds in atmospheric aerosols from a Finnish coniferous forest." Boreal Environ. Res. 10, 2005, pp. 371-384.
 G. Andreou, S. D. Alexiou, G. Loupa and S. Rapsomanikis, "Identification, Abundance and Origin of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in the Fine Atmospheric Particulate Matter of Athens, Greece." Water Air Soil Poll. 8, 2008, pp. 99-106.
 G. Wang, L. Huang, X. Zhao, H. Niu and Z. Dai, "Aliphatic and polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons of atmospheric aerosols in five locations of Nanjing urban area, China. " Atmos. Res. 81, 2006, pp. 54- 66.
 P. Kotianov├í, H. Puxbaum, H. Bauer, A. Caseiro, I. L. Marr and G. ─î├¡k, "Temporal patterns of n-alkanes at traffic exposed and suburban sites in Vienna." Atmos. Environ. 42, 2008, pp. 2993-3005.
 O. Pindado, R. Pérez, S. Garc├¡a, M. S├ínchez, P. Gal├ín and M. Fern├índez, "Characterization and sources assignation of PM2.5 organic aerosol in a rural area of Spain." Atmos. Environ. 43, 2009, pp. 2796- 2803.
 X. F. Huang, L. Y. He, M. Hu and Y.H. Zhang, "Annual variation of particulate organic compounds in PM2.5 in the urban atmosphere of Beijing." Atmos. Environ. 40, 20062, pp. 449-2458.
 Y. Cheng, S. M. Li, A. Leithead and J. R. Brook, "Spatial and diurnal distributions of n-alkanes and n-alkan-2-ones on PM2.5 aerosols in the Lower Fraser Valley, Canada." Atmos. Environ. 40, 2006, pp. 2706- 2720.
 C. Alves and C. Pio, "Molecular markers, essential oils and diagnostic parameters as indicators for assessing the origin and constitution of organic matter in atmospheric aerosols." Int. J. Environ. Poll. 32, 2008, pp. 362-386.
 A. Hamed, J. Joutsensaari, S. Mikkonen, L. Sogacheva, M. Dal Maso, M. Kulmala, F. Cavalli, S. Fuzzi, M. C. Facchini, S. Decesari, M. Mircea, K. E. J. Lehtinen and A. Laaksonen, "Nucleation and growth of new particles in Po Valley, Italy." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 2007, pp. 355-376.
 P. M. Fine, G. R. Cass and B. R. T. Simoneit, "Chemical characterization of fine particle emissions from the fireplace combustion of wood types grown in the midwestern and western United States." Environ. Eng. Sci. 21, 2004, pp. 387-409.
 J. Schnelle-Kreis, M. Sklorz, J. Orasche, M. Stölzel, A. Peters and R. Zimmermann, "Semi volatile organic compounds in ambient PM2.5 seasonal trends and daily resolved source contributions." Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 2007, pp. 3821-3828.
 T. Y. W. Fon, O. Noriatsu and S. Hiroshi, "Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aerosol of Higashi Hiroshima, Japan: Pollution scenario and source identification." Water Air Soil Poll. 182, 2007, pp. 235-243.
 M. A. B. Mazquiar├ín and L. C. O. Pinedo, "Organic composition of atmospheric urban aerosol: Variations and sources of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons." Atmos. Res. 85, 2007, pp. 288-299.
 X. Bi, B. R. T. Simoneit, G. Sheng and J. Fu, "Characterization of molecular markers in smoke from residential coal combustion in China." Fuel 87, 2008, pp. 112-119.
 M. Kalaitzoglon, E. Terzi and C. Samara, "Patterns and sources of particle-phase aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban and rural sites in western Greece." Atmos. Environ. 38, 2004, pp. 2545- 2560.
 M. B. Yunker, R. W. McDonald, R. Vingarzan, R. H. Mitchel, D. Goyette and S. Sylvestre, "PAHs in the Fraser River basin: a critical appraisal of PAH ratios as indicators of PAH source and composition." Org. Geochem. 33, 2002, pp. 489-515.
 M. Xie, G. Wang, S. Hu, Q. Han, Y. Xu and Z. Gao. "Aliphatic alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric PM10 aerosols from Baoji, China: Implications for coal burning." Atmos. Res., 93, 2009, pp.840-848.