Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30184
Age at First Marriage for Husband and Wife between Muslim and Santal Communities in Rural Bangladesh: A Cross-Cultural Perspective
Authors: Md. Emaj Uddin
Abstract:Age at first marriage is a basic temporal term that is culturally constructed for marriage relationship between an adult male and an adult female intended to have sex, to reproduce and to adapt to environment from one generation to another around the world. Cross-cultural evidences suggest that age at first marriage for both male and female not only varies across the cultures, but also varies among the subcultures of the same society. The purpose of the study was to compare age at first marriage for husband and wife including age differences between them between Muslim and Santal communities in rural Bangladesh. For this we hypothesized that (1) there were significant differences in age at first marriage and age interval between husband and wife between Muslim and Santal communities in rural Bangladesh. In so doing, 288 couples (145 pairs of couples for Muslim and 143 pairs of couples for Santal) were selected by cluster random sampling from the Kalna village situated in the Tanore Upazila of Rajshahi district, Bangladesh, whose current mean age range was 36.59 years for husband and 28.85 years for wife for the Muslim and 31.74 years for husband and 25.21 years for wife for the Santal respectively. The results of Independent Sample t test showed that mean age at first marriage for the Muslim samples was 23.05 years for husbands and 15.11 years for wives, while mean age at first marriage for the Santal samples was 20.71 years for husbands and 14.34 years for wives respectively that were significantly different at p<0.05 level. Although husbands compared to wives in both the communities were relatively older, there were significant similarities in mean age differences (7.71 for Muslim couples and 7.51 for Santal, p>0.05) among the selected husbands and wives between the two communities. This study recommends that further cross-cultural researches should be done on the causeeffect relationships between socio-cultural factors and age at marriage between the two communities in Bangladesh.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1072499Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1890
 United Nations, First Marriage: Patterns and Determinants. New York: Population Division, 1988.
 United Nations, Patterns of First Marriage: Timing and Prevalence. New York: Population Division, 1990.
 E. W. Burgess & H. J. Locke, The family: From Institution to Companionship. New York: American Book Company, 1945.
 E. D. Dyer, Courtship, Marriage, & Family: American Style. Homehood, Illinois: The Dorsey Press, 1983.
 G. P. Murdock, Social Structure. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1960.
 D. A. Schulz, The Changing Family: Its Function and Future. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc, 1972.
 D. I. Sills ed., International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. The Macmillan Company, 1968.
 W. N. Stephens, The Family in Cross-cultural Perspective. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc, 1963.
 J. Bernard, American Family Behavior. New York: Elsevier North Holand Inc., 1973, 2nd edition.
 D. M. Buss, "Love acts: The evolutionary biology of love", In R. J. Sternberg & M. L. Bernes eds., The Psychology of Love. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1988, pp. 100-118.
 D. M. Buss, "Sex differences in mate preferences: Evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures", Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 12, 1- 49, 1989.
 R. E. Franken, Human Motivation. Monterey, California: Brooks/ Cole Publishing Company, 1982.
 G. J. Craig, Human Development. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc, 1996.
 N. J. Comb, The Child: Infants, Children and Adolescents. Mountain View, California: Mayfield Publishing Company, 2001.
 D. E. Papalia, S. W. Olds, & R. D. Feldman, A child-s World: Infancy through Adolescence. New York: McGraw-Hill Company, 2002.
 J. Bancroft, "Biological factors in human sexuality", Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, February, 01, 2002.
 E. T. Pengelley, "Cross-cultural and historical aspects of sexual behavior", In P. Zimbardo & C. Maslach: Readings Psychology for our Times. Glenview, Illinois: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1977, 2nd Edition.
 S. Frayser, Varieties of Sexual Experience: An Anthropological Perspective on Human Sexuality. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area File Press, 1985.
 W. J. Goode, World Revolution and Family Patterns (2nd Ed.). New Work: Free Press, 2nd edition, 1983.
 W. H. Davenport, "An anthropological approach", In J. H. Geer & W. T. O-Donohue (Eds.): Theories of Human Sexuality. New York: Plenum, 1987, pp. 197-236.
 H. Harpending, "Age differences between mates in Southern African pastoralists", Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 15, 102-103, 1992.
 D. Marshall, "Sexual behavior on Mangaia", In D. Marshall & R. Suggs eds., Human Sexual Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1971, p. 123.
 A. C. Kinsey, W. B. Pomerov & C. E. Martin, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1948.
 A. C. Kinsey et al., Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1953.
 M. Nag, "Sex, culture, and human fertility: India and United States", Current Anthropology, 13, pp. 231-238, 1972.
 C. Greenblat, "The salience of sexuality in the early years of marriage", Journal of Marriage and the Family, 45, pp. 277-289, 1983.
 D. L. Decker, Social Gerontology: An Introduction to the Dynamics of Aging. Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1980, pp. 222-224.
 C. M. Meston, P. D. Trapnell & B. B. Gorzalka, "Ethnic, Gender, and Length-of residency influences on sexual knowledge and attitudes-, Journal of Sex Research, May 01, 1998.
 M. S. Weinberg, I. Lottes & F. M. Shaver, "Sociocultural correlates of permissive sexual attitudes: A test of Reiss-s hypotheses about Sweden and the United States- Statistical data included", Journal of Sex Research, February 01, 2000.
 E. S. Herold, "The social dimension of sex-Review", Journal of Sex Research, May 01, 2001.
 E. Hatfield & R. L. Rapson, "Passionate love and sexual desire: Crosscultural and historical perspectives", In H. Reis, M. A. Fitzpatrick, & A. Vangelisti, Stability and Change in Relationship Behavior across the Lifespan (in Press). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press (file http://www.elainehatfield.com/histor.doc.).
 R. A. Baron & D. Byrne, Social Psychology: Understanding Human Interaction. New Delhi: Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, 7th edition, 1995.
 A. R. Quisumbing & K. Hallman, Marriage in Transition: Evidence on Age, Education, and Assets from Six Developing Countries, Policy Research Division Working Papers, Population Council, 2003, Retrieved from www.popcouncil.org/publications/wp/prd/rdwplist.html.
 Wikipadia, Age at First Marriage. The pages were last modified 20 November 2008. http://en.wikipadia.org/wiki/Age_at_first_marriage. WIKIPADIA Foundation, Inc.
 United Nations, World Marriage Patterns. New York: Population Division, 2000.
 A. P. McCauley & C. Salter, "Rising age at marriage", in Meeting the Needs of Young Adults. Population Reports, Series J, no. 41. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Population Information Program, October, 1995.
 J. Lewis ed., Social age for marriage, Context: Southeast Asians and other newcomers in California-s classrooms, vol. 16, no. 122, 1996.
 MS. J. Sheela & N. Audinarayana, "determinants of female age at first marriage in Tamil Nadu: An analysis of NFHS data", The Journal of Family Welfare, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 25-32, 2000.
 USAID, Community-based intervention to delay age of marriage: A review of evidence in India, This article was retrieved from http://www.intrahealth.org/assets/uploaded/resources_08ER_Brief_DO M%201.pdf.
 D. R. Devi, Age at Marriage in India: Vision and Reality. New Delhi: Serials Publications.
 G. E. Weisfeld & C. E. Weisfeld, "Marriage: An evolutionary perspective", Human Ethology and Evolutionary Psychology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 47-54, 2002.
 P. Maitra, "Effects of socioeconomic characteristics on age at marriage and total fertility in Nepal", Journal of health, Population and Nutrition, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 84-96, 2004.
 M. J. Rosenfeld (2007), Interracial marriage and age at marriage: A Research note, This article was retrieved from www.stanford.edu/~mrosenfe/Rosenfeld-age-at-marriage.pdf
 C. T. Maloney, K. M. A. Aziz & P. C. Sarker, Beliefs and Fertility in Bangladesh. Dacca: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, 1981.
 S. N. Mitra & G. M. Kamal, Bangladesh Contraceptive Prevalence Survey-1983. Dhaka: Mitra and Associates, 1985.
 K. M. A. Aziz & C. T. Maloney, Life Stages, Gender and Fertility in Bangladesh. Dhaka: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, 1985.
 M. B. Duza, ed., South Asia Study of Population Policy and Programmes: Bangladesh. Dhaka: United Nations Population Fund, 1990.
 S. N. Mitra, et al., Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey-1993- 1994. Dhaka: Mitra and Associates, 1994.
 P. C. Sarker, Social Structure & Fertility Behaviour: A Cross-Cultural Study. Dhaka: Centre for development Services, 1997.
 J. E. Philips & M. B. Hossain, The Impact of Family Planning Household Service Delivery on Women-s Status in Bangladesh. Policy Research Division Working Papers, No. 118, New York: Population Council, 1998.
 Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh. Ministry of Planning, Government of the People-s Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka: Statistics Division, 2001.
 M. K. Burket et al., Raising the Age of Marriage for Young Girls in Bangladesh. Dhaka: Pathfinder International.
 A. Foster & A. Protik (2005), Age at marriage, migration, and marriage market equilibrium in rural Bangladesh, This article was retrieved from http://paa2005.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionld=51609.
 S. R. Schuler et al., "The timing of marriage and childbearing among rural families in Bangladesh: Choosing between competing risks", Social Science and Medicine, vol. 62, pp. 2826-2837, 2006.
 N. Kamal (2006), Causes and consequences of early marriage, This article was retrieved from http://www.iub.edu.bd/chpd/Causes%20and%20Consequences%20 of %20 Early %20 marriage-Published %20Paper-2006-NKamal.pdf.
 M. A. Islam (2007), Bangladesh struggles with "child marriage", Retrieved from voiceofsouth.org/2007/07/15/child_wedding/-38k.
 ICDDRB, Health and Demographic Surveillance System- Matlab:Vol. 39. Dhaka: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, 2007.
 ICDDRB, "Consequences of early marriage on female schooling in rural Bangladesh", Health and Science Bulletin, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 13-18, 2007.
 Bangladesh bureau of Statistics, Key indicators on report of sample vital registration system 2006-2007, Retrieved from http://www.bbs.gov.bd/dataindex/Key_surs_2007.pdf.
 M. E. Uddin, Family structure in a village of Bangladesh: A crosscultural study, Ph. D. dissertation, the Institute of Bangladesh Studies, Rajshahi: Rajshahi University, Unpublished.
 M. A. M. Chowdhury, "Correlates of high-risk and low-risk childbearing pattern in Bangladesh", Ph.D. Dissertation, Rajshahi: University of Rajshahi, Unpublished.
 U. R. Saha, & R. Bairagi, "Inconsistencies in the relationship between contraceptive use and fertility in Bangladesh", International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 31-37, 2007.
 A. Ali, The Santals of Bangladesh. Calcutta: The Sabuge Sangah Press, 1998.
 S. Kayes, Cultural change of Santal community of Rajshahi district: An anthropological study", M. Phil Dissertation, The Institute of Bangladesh Studies, Rajshahi: University of Rajshahi, Unpublished.
 S. Sultana, "Kin relation of the Santal community and its recent changes: A study of four villages of the Naogaon district", M. Phil Dissertation, Rajshahi, University of Rajshahi, Unpublished.
 K. M. A. Aziz, Kinship in Bangladesh. Dhaka: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, 1979.
 A. Z. M. Alam Family Values. Dhaka: Bangladesh Cooperative Society Limited, 1995.
 M. Afsaruddin, Society and Culture in Bangladesh. Dhaka: Book House, 1990.
 World Bank, Bangladesh: A Proposal for Rural Development Strategy. Dhaka: The University Press Limited, 2000.
 K. A. Toufique & C. Turton, Hands not Land- How Livelihoods are Changing in Rural Bangladesh. Dhaka: Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, 2002.
 K. T. Hossain, M. H. Imam & S. E. Habib ed., Women, Gender and Discrimination. Rajshahi: Higher Education Link Programme, 2004.
 S. J. South & K. D. Crowder, "The declining significance of neighborhoods? Marital transitions in community context", Social Forces, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 1067-1099, 2000.
 A. R. Snyder, S. L. Brown & E. P. Condo, "Residential differences in family formation: The significance of cohabitation", Rural Sociology, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 255-260, 2004.
 S. Bharat, Family Measurement in India. New Delhi: Sage Publications Pvt Ltd, 1996.
 R. Bairagi et al., "Age misstatement for young children in rural Bangladesh", Demography, vol.19, no.4, pp. 447-458, 1982.