Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 31482
Basic Research for Distinguishing Small Retinal Hemorrhages from Dust Artifact by using Hue, Lightness, and Saturation Color Space
Authors: Naoto Suzuki
Abstract:To distinguish small retinal hemorrhages in early diabetic retinopathy from dust artifacts, we analyzed hue, lightness, and saturation (HLS) color spaces. The fundus of 5 patients with diabetic retinopathy was photographed. For the initial experiment, we placed 4 different colored papers on the ceiling of a darkroom. Using each color, 10 fragments of house dust particles on a magnifier were photographed. The colored papers were removed, and 3 different colored light bulbs were suspended from the ceiling. Ten fragments of house dust particles on the camera-s object lens were photographed. We then constructed an experimental device that can photograph artificial eyes. Five fragments of house dust particles under the ocher fundus of the artificial eye were photographed. On analyzing HLS color space of the dust artifact, lightness and saturation were found to be highly sensitive. However, hue was not highly sensitive.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1072263Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1363
 O. T. Tsuchiya., Measure Against Lifestyle Related Disease, JMAJ, Vol.49 no.3, 2006, pp132-134.
 E. Duh, Diabetic Retinopathy, Humana Press, 2008, pp29-66
 American Diabetes Association, Diabetic retinopathy, Clinical Diabetes, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2001, pp29-32
 S. S. Savant and H. B. Chandalia, Diabetic retinopathy, Intnl. J. Dev. Contries, Vol. 10, 1991, pp,9-25
 J. B. Brown, K. L. Pedula, K. H. Summers, Diabetic retinopathy, Diabetes Care, Vol. 26, No. 9, 2003, pp2637-2642.
 S. Garg and R. M. Davis, Diabetic retinopathy screening update, Clinical diabetes, Vo. 27, No. 4, 2009, pp140-145.
 I. U. Scott, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bresseler et al, Agreement between clinical and reading center gradings of diabetic retinopathy severity level at baseline in a phase 2 study of intravitreal bevacizumab for diabetic macular edema, Retina, Vol. 28, No. 1, 2008, pp36-40.
 M. S. Figueroa, I . Contreras, S. Noval, Anti-angiogetic drugs as an adjunctive therapy in the surgical treatment of diabetic retinopathy, Curr Diabetes Rev., Vol. 5, No. 1, 2009, pp52-56.
 A.G. Oomen, J. P. C. M. Janssen, A. Dusseldorp et al., Ecposure to chemicals via house dust, RIVM Report 609021064/2008, 2008, pp11-18.
 E. Fern├índez-Caldas, W. L. Trudeau and D. K. Ledford, Environmental control of indoor biologic agents. J. Allergy. Clin. Immunol., issue 2, part 2, 1994, pp404-412.
 R. G. Willson, M. W. Maimone, A. E. Johnson et al, An Optical Model for Image Artifacts Produced by Dust Particles on Lenses, Proc. ISAIRAS 2005 Conference, 2005, ESA SP p603.
 A.V. Shukla, Clinical Optics Primer for Ophthalmic Medical Personnel, A Guide to Laws, Formulae, Calculations, and Clinical Applications, SLACK Inc. 2009, pp85-89.
 M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics 7th expanded edition, Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999, pp142-227.
 D. D. David, R. Prescott, and S. Kennedy, Simultaneous stereoscopic fundus camera incorporating a single optical axis, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. March, 1980, pp289-297.
 R. Zeimer, S. Zou, T. Meeder et al, A fundus camera dedicated to the screening of diabetic retinopathy in the primary-care physician-s office, IOVS May, Vol. 43, No. 5, 2002, pp1581-1587
 M. Niemeijer, B. Ginneken, S. R. Russell et al, Automated detection and differential of drusen, exudates, and cotton-wool spots in digital color fundus photographs for diabetic retinopathy diagnosis, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., Vol. 48, No. 5, 2007, pp2260-2267.
 D.Y. Lin, M. S. Blumenkrans, R. J. Brothers et al, The sensitivity and specificity of single-field nonmydriatic monochromatic digital fundus photography with remote image interpretation for diabetic retinopathy screening: a comparison with ophthalmoscopy and standardized mydriatic color photography, Am. J. Ophthalmol., Vol. 134, 2002, pp204-213.
 J. A. Olson, F. M. Strachan, J. H. Hipwell et al, A comparative evaluation of digital imaging, retinal photography and optometrist examination in screening for diabetic retinopathy, Diabet. Med., Vol. 20, 2003, pp528-534.
 A. E. Dirik, H. T. Sencar and N. Memon, Source Camera Identification Based on Sensor dust Characteristics, Signal Processing Applications for Public Security and Forensics 2007, SAFE-07, IEEE Workshop, 2007, pp1-6.
 R. Bergman, R. Maurer, H. Nachlieli et al, Comprehensive Solutions for Removal of Dust and Scratches from Images, Journal of Electronic Imaging, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2008, pp1-25.
 A. Zamfir, A. Drimbarean, M. Zamfir et al., An Optic Model of the Appearance of Blemishes in Digital Photographs, Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 6502, Digital Photography 3, 2007.
 A. E. Dirik, H. T. Sencar and N. Memon, Digital Single Lens Reflex Camera Identification From Traces of Sensor Dust, IEEE Trans. Info. For. and Sec., Vol. 3, No. 3, 2008, pp539-552.
 R. F. Lyon, Prism-Based Color Separation for Professional Digital Photography, Proceedings of IS&T-s PICS 2000 Conference: Image Processing, Image Quality, Image Capture Systems Conference, Oregon, 2000, pp50-54.
 H. Narasimha-Iyer, A. Can, B. Roysam et al., Robust Detection and Classification of Longitudinal Changes in Color Retinal Fundus Images for Monitoring Diabetic Retinopathy, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., Vol. 53, No. 6, 2006, pp1084-1098.
 H. Narasima-lyer, A. Can, B. Roysam et al, Integrated analysis of vascular and nonvascular changes from color retinal fundus image sequences., IEEE Trans Biomed Eng., Vol. 54, No. 8, 2007, pp1436-45.
 P. J. Saine, Errors in Fundus Photography, Journal of Ophthalmic Photography, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1984, pp120-122.
 M. Tkal╦çci╦çc & F. J. Tasi╦çc, Colour spaces - perceptual , historical and applicational background, EUROCON 2003, Computer as a tool, The IEEE Region 8, Vol.1, 2003, pp304-308.
 J. Koenderink, Colour for the sciences, The MIT Press, 2009, pp45-52, pp497-537.
 B. Jahne, Practical Handbook on Image Processing for Scientific Applications, CRC Press, 1997, pp102-107.
 B. G. Haskell, A. Puri and A. N. Netravali, Digital Video: An Introduction to MPEG-2, Chapman & Hall, 1997, pp86-91.
 A. Hanbury and J. Serra, Mathematical Morphology in the HLS Colour Space, 12th British Machine Vision Conference, Manchester, UK, 2001, pp 451-460.
 Jasc Software, Inc., Chapter 8: Making color and Tonal Corrections, Paint Shop Pro 8 User Guide, 2002, pp181-206.
 R. A. Peters II, Mathematical morphology for angle-valued images, Proceedings of the SPIE, Nonlinear Image Processing VIII 3026, 1997, pp84-94.
 Nikon Corporations, Nikon D1X Operators Manual, pp212-219.
 FUJIFILM Corporation, Digital Camera FinePix J27/J28/J29/J30/J32/J37/J38 Owner-s Manual, pp99-104.
 Canon Inc., Canon EOS 50D Instruction Manual, pp204-210, 2008