Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31249
A Blind Digital Watermark in Hadamard Domain

Authors: Saeid Saryazdi, Hossein Nezamabadi-pour


A new blind gray-level watermarking scheme is described. In the proposed method, the host image is first divided into 4*4 non-overlapping blocks. For each block, two first AC coefficients of its Hadamard transform are then estimated using DC coefficients of its neighbor blocks. A gray-level watermark is then added into estimated values. Since embedding watermark does not change the DC coefficients, watermark extracting could be done by estimating AC coefficients and comparing them with their actual values. Several experiments are made and results suggest the robustness of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Digital Watermarking, Steganography, image watermarking, Information Hiden

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1977


[1] Katzenbeisser, S., Petitcolas, F. A. P., "Information Hiding Techniques for Steganography and Digital Watermarking", Artech House Editions, 2000.
[2] Cox, I. J., Kilian, J., Leighton, F. T., Shamoon, T., "Secure Spread Spectrum Watermarking for Multimedia", IEEE Trans. On Image Processing, No. 6, Vol. 12,pp 1673-1687, 1997.
[3] Hsu, C. T., Wu, J. L., " Multi-resolution Watermarking for Digital Images", IEEE Trans. On Circuits & Systems: Analog & Digital Signal Processing, Vol. 45, No. 8, 1998.
[4] Hsu, C. T., Wu, J. L., " Hidden Digital Watermarks in Images", IEEE Trans. On Image Processing, Vol.8, No. 1, 1999.
[5] Wang, Y., Pearmain. A., "Blind Image Data Hiding Based on Self Reference", Pattern Recognition Letters, Vol. 25, Issue 15, pp. 1681-1689, November 2004.
[6] B.J. Falkowski, L. Lim, "Image watermarking using Hadamard transform", Electron. Lett. 36 (3), pp. 211-213, 2000.
[7] Ho, A., Shen, J., Soon, H. T., Kot, A. C., "Digital Image-in-image watermarking for Copyright Protection of Satellite Images using the Fast Hadamard Transform", IEEE Int. Geosciences and Remote Sensing Symp., pp. 3311-3313., 2002.
[8] Gilani, S. M., Skodras, A. N., "Watermarking by Multi-resolution Hadamard Transform", Proc. of European Conf. On Electronic Imaging and Visual Arts (EVA 2001), Florence, Italy, March 2001.
[9] Fei, C., Kundur, D., Kwong, R. H., "The Choice of Watermark Domain in the Presence of Compression", Proc. Of IEEE Int. Conf. On Information Technology: Coding & Computing, pp 79-84, Las Vegas, Nevada, April 2001.
[10] Prat, W. K., "Digital Image Processing", John Wiley Editions, 1991.
[11] Gonzales, C. A., Allman, L., Mccarthy, T., Wendt,P., "DCT Coding for Motion Video Storage Using Adaptive Arithmetic Coding ",Signal Processing: Image Communication,No.2,1990.
[12] Kim, C., Li, Q., Kuo, C., J., "Fast Intra-Prediction Model Selection for H- 264 Codec", Proc. of ITCOM03, 2003.