Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil using Heterogeneous Base Catalyst
In this study, the transesterification of palm oil with methanol for biodiesel production was studied by using CaO–ZnO as a heterogeneous base catalyst prepared by incipient-wetness impregnation (IWI) and co-precipitation (CP) methods. The reaction parameters considered were molar ratio of methanol to oil, amount of catalyst, reaction temperature, and reaction time. The optimum conditions–15:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil, a catalyst amount of 6 wt%, reaction temperature of 60 °C, and reaction time of 8 h–were observed. The effects of Ca loading, calcination temperature, and catalyst preparation on the catalytic performance were studied. The fresh and spent catalysts were characterized by several techniques, including XRD, TPR, and XRF.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1071544Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2220
 Serio, M., Tesser, R., Pengmei, L., and Santacesaria, E. "Heterogeneous Catalysts for Biodiesel Production". Energy & Fuels 2008:22:207-217.
 Harrington KJ. "Chemical and physical properties of vegetable oil esters and their effect on diesel fuel performance". Biomass and energy 1986;9:1-17.
 USEPA. "A comprehensive analysis of biodiesel impacts on exhaust emissions". Draft Technical Report. USEPA; 2002.
 Fangrui, M. and Hanna,M.A. "Biodiesel production: a review". Bioresource Technology 1999:70(1):1-15.
 Knothe, G., Sharp, C.A., and Ryan, T.W. "Exhaust Emissions of Biodiesel, Petrodiesel, Neat Methyl Esters, and Alkanes in a New Technology Engine". Energy & Fuels 2006:20:403-408.
 Demirbas, A. "Biodiesel from vegetable oils via transesterification in supercritical methanol". Energy Conversion & Management 2002:43:2349-2356
 Fukuda, H., Kondo, A., and Noda, H. "Biodiesel fuel production by transesterification of oils". Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 2001:92:405-416.
 J. Otera, "Trans-esterification". Chem. Rev. 1993:93:1449-1470.
 E. Lotero, Y. Liu, D.E. Lopez, K. Suwannakarn, D.A. Bruce, J.G. Goodwin, "Synthesis of biodiesel via acid catalysis". Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2005:44:5353-5363.
 Zhang, Y., Dube, M.A., Mclean, D.D., and Kates, M. "Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: 2. Economic assessment and sensitivity analysis". Bioresource Technology 2003:90:229-240.
 Dizge N, Aydiner C, Imer DY, Bayramoglu M, Tanriseven A, Keskinler B. "Biodiesel production from sunflower, soybean, and waste cooking oils by transesterification using lipase immobilized onto a novel microporous polymer". Bioresource Technology 2009;100:1983-91.
 Liu X, He H, Wang Y, Zhu S, Piao X. "Transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel using CaO as a solid base catalyst". Fuel 2008;87:216- 21.
 Shimada Y, Watanabe Y, Sugihara A, Tominaga Y. "Enzymatic alcoholysis for biodiesel fuel production and application of the reaction to oil processing". J Mol Catal B: Enzym 2002;17:133-42.
 Kulkarni MG, Gopinath R, Meher LC, Dalai AK. "Solid acid catalyzed biodiesel production by simultaneous esterification and transesterification." Green Chem 2006;8:1056-62.
 Qian WW, Yang L, Lu XP. "Preparation of biodiesel catalyzed by KF/CaO with ultrasonic". In: Zhuang X, editor. International conference on biomass energy technologies. Guangzhou, China; 2008.
 Di Serio M, Cozzolino M, Tesser R, Patrono P, Pinzari F, Bonelli B, et al. "Vanadyl phosphate catalysts in biodiesel production". Appl Catal A 2007;320:1-7.
 Kawashima A, Matsubara K, Honda K. "Acceleration of catalytic activity of calcium oxide for biodiesel production". Bioresour Technol 2009;100:696-700.
 Taufiq-Yap Y, Lee H, Hussein M, Yunus R. "Calcium-based mixed oxide catalysts for methanolysis of Jatropha curcas oil to biodiesel". Biomass and Bioenergy 2011:35:827-834
 Ngamcharussrivichai C, Totarat P, Bunyakiat K. "Ca and Zn mixed oxide as a heterogeneous base catalyst for transesterification of palm kernel oil". Appl Catal A 2008;341:77-85.
 El-Shoba G.A. ky, A.A. Mostafa, "Thermochim". Acta 2003:408:75- 84.
 Xie W, Huang X, Li H. "Soybean oil methyl esters preparation using NaX zeolites loaded with KOH as a heterogeneous catalyst". Bioresource Technology 2007:98(4):936-939.