Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31819
Development of a Kinetic Model for the Photodegradation of 4-Chlorophenol using a XeBr Excilamp

Authors: M. Gomez, M. D. Murcia, E. Gomez, J. L. Gomez, N. Christofi


Excilamps are new UV sources with great potential for application in wastewater treatment. In the present work, a XeBr excilamp emitting radiation at 283 nm has been used for the photodegradation of 4-chlorophenol within a range of concentrations from 50 to 500 mg L-1. Total removal of 4-chlorophenol was achieved for all concentrations assayed. The two main photoproduct intermediates formed along the photodegradation process, benzoquinone and hydroquinone, although not being completely removed, remain at very low residual concentrations. Such concentrations are insignificant compared to the 4-chlorophenol initial ones and non-toxic. In order to simulate the process and scaleup, a kinetic model has been developed and validated from the experimental data.

Keywords: 4-chlorophenol, excilamps, kinetic model, photodegradation.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1221


[1] U.G. Ahlborg and T.M. Thunberg, "Chlorinated phenols: occurrence, toxicity, metabolism, and environmental impact," Crit. Rev. Toxicol., vol. 7, pp. 1-35, 1980.
[2] V.B. Batoev, G.G. Nimatsyrenova, G.S. Dabalaeva and S.S. Palitsyna, "Chlorinated phenols in Selenga river basin," Chemistry for Sustainable Development, vol. 13, pp. 31-36, 2005.
[3] M. Wagner and J.A. Nicell, "Treatment of a foul condensate from Kraft pulping with horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide," Water Res., vol. 35, pp. 485-495, 2001.
[4] O. Milstein, "Removal of chlorophenols and chlorolignins from bleaching effluent by combined chemical and biological treatment," Water Sci. Technol., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 161-170, 1988.
[5] R.C. Wang, C.C. Kuo and C.C. Shyu, "Adsorption of phenols onto granular activated carbon in a liquid-solid fluidized bed," J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 187-194, 1997.
[6] G.J. Wilson, A.P. Khodadoust, M.T. Suidan, R.C. Brenner and C.M. Acheson, "Anaerobic/aerobic biodegradation of pentachlorophenol using GAC fluidized bed reactors: optimization of the empty bed contact time," Water Sci. Technol., vol. 38, pp. 9-17, 1998.
[7] J. Ding, F. Chen, S. Wu, S. Rong and C. Feng, "Treatment of phenolcontaining wastewater by supercritical water oxidation process," Huanjing Wuran Yu Fangzhi, vol. 22, pp. 1-3, 2000.
[8] C.D. Wu, X.H. Liu, D.B. Wei, J.C. Fan and L.S. Wang, "Photosonochemical degradation of phenol in water," Water Res., vol. 35, pp. 3927-3933, 2001.
[9] Z.P.G. Masende, B.F.M. Kuster, K.J. Ptasinski, F.J.J.G. Janssen, J.H.Y. Katima and J.C. Schouten, "Platinum catalysed wet oxidation of phenol in a stirred slurry reactor. The role of oxygen and phenol loads on reaction pathways," Catal. Today, vol. 79, pp. 357-370, 2003.
[10] B.K. Korbahti and A. Tanyolac, "Continuous electrochemical treatment of phenolic wastewater in a tubular reactor," Water Res., vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 1505-1514, 2003.
[11] N. Christofi, G.G. Matafonova, V.B. Batoev, M.A. Misakyan, E.M. Barkhudarov and I.A. Kossyi, "UV treatment of chlorophenols in water using uv microwave lamps and Xe/Br excilamp coupled with biodegradation," Water Resour. Res. Progress, L.N. Robinson, Ed. New York: Nova Science Publishers Inc, 2008, pp. 101-126.
[12] W. Bryant, "The removal of chlorinated organic from conventional pulp and paper wastewater treatment systems," Water Sci. Technol., vol. 26, pp. 417-425, 1992.
[13] N. Caza, J.K. Bewtra, N. Biswas and K.E. Taylor, "Removal of phenolic compounds from synthetic wastewater using soybean peroxidase," Water Res., vol. 33, pp. 3012-3008, 1999.
[14] G. Matafonova, G. Shirapova, C. Zimmer, F. Giffhorn, V. Batoev and G. Kohring, "Degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol by Bacillus sp. isolated from an aeration pond in the Baikalsk pulp and paper mill (Russia)," Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad., vol. 58, pp. 209-212, 2006.
[15] A. B├│dalo, J.L. G├│mez, E. G├│mez, A.M. Hidalgo, M. G├│mez and A.M. Yelo, "Removal of 4-chlorophenol by soybean peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide in a discontinuous tank reactor," Desalination, vol. 195, no. 1- 3, pp. 51-59, 2007.
[16] Y. Jiang, J. Wen and Z. Hu, "Biodegradation of phenol and 4- chlorophenol by the yeast Candida tropicalis," Biodegradation, vol. 18, pp. 719-729, 2007
[17] M.Y. Ghaly, G. Härtel, R. Mayer and R. Haseneder, "Photochemical oxidation of p-chlorophenol by UV/H2O2 and photo-Fenton process. A comparative study," Waste Manage., vol. 21, pp. 41-47, 2001.
[18] S. Ledakowicz, M. Solecka and R. Zylla, "Biodegradation, decolourisation and detoxification of textile wastewater enhanced by advanced oxidation processes," J. Biotechnol., vol. 89, pp. 175-184, 2001.
[19] E. Silva, M.M. Pereira, H.D. Burrows, M.E. Azenha, M. Sarakhab and M. Bolte, "Photooxidation of 4-chlorophenol sensitised by iron mesotetrakis( 2,6-dichloro-3-sulfophenyl)porphyrin in aqueous solution," Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., vol. 3, pp. 200-204, 2004.
[20] M.I. Litter, "Introduction to photochemical advanced oxidation processes for water treatment", in The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, vol. 2, Part M., Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, DOI 10.1007/b138188, 2005, pp. 325-366.
[21] B. Sun, E.P. Reddy and P.G. Smirniotis, "TiO2-loaded Cr-modified molecular sieves for 4-chlorophenol photodegradation under visible light," J.Catal., vol. 237, pp. 314-321, 2006.
[22] M. Pera-Titus, V. Garc├¡a-Molina, M.A. Ba├▒os, J. Jiménez and S. Esplugas, "Degradation of chlorophenols by means of advanced oxidation processes: A general review," Appl. Catal., B, vol. 47, pp. 219-256, 2004.
[23] M. Czaplicka, "Photo-degradation of chlorophenols in the aqueous solution," J. Hazard. Mater., vol. 134, pp. 45-59, 2006.
[24] E. Tamer, Z. Hamid, A.M. Aly, El T. Ossama, M. Bo and G. Benoit, "Sequential UV-biological degradation of chlorophenols," Chemosphere, vol. 63, pp. 277-284, 2006.
[25] J. Theurich, M. Lindner and D.W. Bahnemann, "Photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol in aerated aqueous titanium dioxide suspensions: A kinetic and mechanistic study," Langmuir, vol. 12, no. 26, pp. 6368-6376, 1996.
[26] Y. Meng, X. Huang, Y. Wu, X. Wang and Y. Qian, "Kinetic study and modelling on photocatalytic degradation of para-chlorobenzoate at different light intensities," Environ. Pollut., vol. 117, pp. 307-313, 2002.
[27] M.A. Barakat, G. Schaeffer, G. Hayes and S. Ismath-Shah, "Photocatalytic degradation of 2-chlorophenol by Co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles," Appl. Catal., B, vol. 57, pp. 23-30, 2004.
[28] S. Bakardjieva, J. Subrt, V. Stengl and M.J. Dianez, "Photoactivity of anatase-rutile TiO2 nanocrystalline mixtures obtained by heat treatment of homogeneously precipitated anatase," Appl. Catal., B, vol. 58, pp. 193-202, 2005.
[29] G. Baum and T. Oppenländer, "VUV-oxidation of chloroorganic compounds in an excimer flow through photoreactor," Chemosphere, vol. 30, pp. 1781-1790, 1995.
[30] G. Matafonova, N. Christofi, V. Batoev and E. Sosnin, "Degradation of chlorophenols in aqueous media using UV XeBr excilamp in a flowthrough reactor," Chemosphere, vol. 70, pp. 1124-1127, 2008.
[31] E.A. Sosnin, T. Oppenländer and F.V. Tarasenko, "Applications of capacitive and barrier discharge excilamps in photoscience," J. Photochem. Photobiol. C, vol. 7, pp. 145-163, 2006.
[32] A. B├│dalo, J.L. G├│mez, E. G├│mez, A.M. Hidalgo, M. G├│mez and A.M. Yelo, "Elimination of 4-chlorophenol by soybean peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide: Kinetic model and intrinsic parameters," Biochem. Eng. J., vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 242-247, 2007.
[33] J.L. G├│mez, A. B├│dalo, E. G├│mez, A.M. Hidalgo and M. G├│mez, "A new method to estimate intrinsic parameters in the ping-pong bisubstrate kinetics: Application to the oxipolymerization of phenol," Am. J. Biochem. Biotechnol., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 115-120, 2005.
[34] M. Gomez, M.D. Murcia, G. Matafonova, J.L. Gomez, V. Batoev and N. Christofi, "Testing a KrCl excilamp as new enhanced UV source for 4- chlorophenol degradation: experimental results and kinetic model," Chem. Eng. Process., submitted for publication.