**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**31324

##### Load Flow Analysis: An Overview

**Authors:**
P. S. Bhowmik,
D. V. Rajan,
S. P. Bose

**Abstract:**

The load flow study in a power system constitutes a study of paramount importance. The study reveals the electrical performance and power flows (real and reactive) for specified condition when the system is operating under steady state. This paper gives an overview of different techniques used for load flow study under different specified conditions.

**Keywords:**
Fuzzy Logic,
Artificial Neural Network,
Newton-Raphson Method,
Load Flow Studies,
Y-matrix and Z-matrix iteration,
Fast Decoupled method

**Digital Object Identifier (DOI):**
doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1070159

**References:**

[1] W.F.; Walker, J.W., "Direct solutions of sparse network equations by optimally ordered triangular factorization" , Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 55, no.11, pp. 1801-1809, Nov. 1967.

[2] R. J. Brown and W. F. Tinney, "Digital solutions for large power networks," AIEE Trans. (Power App. Syst.), vol. 76, pp. 347-355, June 1957.

[3] G. W. Stagg and A. H. El-Abiad, Computer Methods in Power System Analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968.

[4] 0. Elgerd, Electric Energy Systems Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971.

[5] A. Ralston, A First Course is Numerical Analysis. New York: McGraw- Hill, 1965.

[6] J. B. Ward ant H. W. Hale, "Digital computer solution of powerflow problems," AIEE Trans. (Power App. Syst.), vol. 75, pp. 398-304, June 1956.

[7] A. F. Glimn and G. W. Stagg, "Automatic calculation of load flows," AIEE Trans. (Power App. Syst.), vol. 76, pp, 817-828, Oct. 1957.

[8] R. Podmore and J. M. Undrill, "Modifted nodal iterative load flow algorithm to handle series capaative branches," IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-92, pp. 1379-1387, July/Aug. 1973.

[9] H. E. Brown, G. K. Carter, H. H. Happ, and C. E. Person, "Power flow solution by impedance matrix iterative method," IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-82, pp. 1-10, Apr. 1963.

[10] H. E. Brown, G. K. Carter, H. H. Happ, and C. E. Person,, "Z-matrix algorithms in load-flow programs," IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-87, pp. 807-814, Mar. 1968.

[11] J. E. Van Ness, ÔÇÿIteration methods for digital load flow studies," AIEE Trans. (Pown App. Syst.), voL 78. pp. 583-588, Aug. 1959.

[12] J. E. Van Nness and J. H. Griffin, "Elimination methods for loadflow studies, AIEE Trans. (Power App. Syst.), vol. 80, pp. 299-304, June 1961.

[13] J. P. Britton, "Improved area interchange control for Newton-s method load flows," IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-88, pp. 1577 - 1581.

[14] J. P. Britton, "Improved load flow performance through a more general equation form," IEEE Trans. Pwer App. Syst., vol. PAS-90, pp. 109- 116, Jan./Feb. 1971.

[15] Xiao-Ping Zhang, Heng Chen, "Sequence decupled newton-raphson three phase load flow", in Proc. IEEE TENCON, 1993, pp. 394-397.

[16] Abilio Manuel Variz, Vander Manengoy Dacosta, Jose Liz R. Pereira, Nelson Martins, "Improved representation of control adjustments into the Newton- Raphson Power Flow", Electr. Power and Energy Syst., 2003, 25, pp. 501-513

[17] V. M. da Costa, J.L.R.Pereira,N.Martins, "An augmentd Newton- Raphson power flow formulation based on current injection" ,Electr. Power&Energy Syst., 2001, 23, pp. 305-312

[18] Brian Stott, "Decoupled Newton Load Flow", IEEE Trans., 1972, PAS-91, pp.1955-1959.

[19] S. T. Despotovic, B. S. Babic, and V. P. Mastilovic, "A rapid and reliable method for solving load flow problems," IEEE Trans.Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-90, pp. 123-130, Jan./Feb. 1971.

[20] N. M. Peterson, W. F. Tinney, and D. W. Bree, Jr., "Iterative linear ac power flow Solution for fast approximate outage studies, " IEEE Trans. Pown App. Syst., vol. PAS-91, pp. 2048-2056, Sept./Oct.1972.

[21] S.T.Despotovic, "A new decoupled load flow Method," IEEE PES summer meeting, Jan 1973, pp. 884- 891.

[22] B.Stott, O.Alsac, "Fast Decoupled Load Flow", IEEE Trans., 1974, PAS-93, pp. 859-869.

[23] J.Nanda, D.P.Kothari, S.C.Srivastava, "Some Important observation on fast decoupled load algorithm", IEEE Proc.,1987 ,75, pp.732-733.

[24] M.Sydulu, M.Rama Murthi, "Improvements in load flow studies using strengthening of fast decoupled models", IEEE TENCON, 1991, pp. 188-193.

[25] Georgios Leonidopoulos, "Approximate linear decoupled solution as the initial value of power system load flow", Electr. Power Syst. Res.,1995, 32, pp.161-163.

[26] E.Chandrasekharan, M.S.N.Potti, R. Sreeramakumar, K. P. Mhandas, "Improved general purpose fast decoupled load flow",Electr. Power &Energy Syst., 2002, 24, pp. 481-488.

[27] K.L.Lo, Y. J. Lin, W. H. Siew, "Fuzzy-Logic method for adjustment of various parameters in load flow calculation",IEE proc.,1999, 146 , pp. 276-282.

[28] J.G.Viachogiannis, "Fuzzy logic applications in load flow studies", IEE Proc. Gener. Transm. Distrib., 2001, 148, pp. 34-40.

[29] P.R.Bijwe, M.Hanmandlu,V.N.Pande, "Fuzzy power flow solutions with reactive limits and multiple uncertainties", Electr. Power Syst. Res., 2005, 76, pp.145-152.

[30] Shishir Dixit, Laxmi Srivastava, Ganga Agnihotri, "Power flow analysis using fuzzy logic", in Proc. Power India Conference, 2006 IEEE, New Delhi, pp. 7.

[31] V.L. Paucar, Marcas J. Rider,"Artificial Neural Networks For Solving Power Flow Problems In Electric Power System", Electr. Power Syst. Res. 62, pp.139-144

[32] A. Arunagiri, B.Venkatesh, K. Ramasamy, "Artificial Neral Network Approach-An Application To Radial Load Flow Algorithm", IEICE Electron.Express,2006 , 3, pp.353-360.

[33] M. Mohatram, P.Tewari, N.Latanath, "Economic load flow using lagrange neural network", in Proc. Electronics, Communications and Photonics Conference (SIECPC), 2011 Saudi International, April 2011, pp. 1-7

[34] A.Jain, S.C.Tripathy, R.Balasubramanian, K.Garg, Y.Kawazoe, "Neural network based stochastic load flow analysis", PowerCon 2004, International Conference, Nov 2004, vol. 2, pp. 1845-1850.

[35] A. Jain, S. C. Tripathy, R. Balasubramanian, K. Garg, Y.Kawazoe, "Stochastic load flow analysis using artificial neural networks", Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2006, IEEE, Montreal, Que, pp.6.

[36] Gwang Soo Jang, Don Hur, Jong-Keun Park, Sang Ho Lee, " A modified power flow analysis to remove a slack bus with a sense of economic load dispatch", Electr. Power Syst. Res. 2005, 73, pp. 137- 142.

[37] Carlos Aparecido Ferreira, Vander Menegory Da Costa,-A second Order Power Flow Based On Current Injection Equation-,Electr.Power& Energy Syst., 2005, 27, pp.254-263.

[38] H.M. Smith JR.,Shih-Yung Tong, "Minimizing power transmission losses by reactive volt-ampere control", IEEE Trans., 1963, 82, pp. 542- 544.

[39] Vander Menengoy Da Costa, Marina Lavorato De Oliveira, Magda Rocha Guedes, ÔÇÿDevelopments in the analysis of unbalanced three phase power flow solutions", Electr. Power&Energy Syst., 2007, 29, pp. 175- 182.

[40] N. L. Srinivasa Rao, Dr. G. Govinda Rao, B. Ragunath, "Power flow studies of a regional grid with inter-state tie line constraints", IEEE Power Quality Apos. 1998, pp. 165-171.

[41] Y. Wallach, "Gradient methods for load flow-problems," IEEE Trans, Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-87, pp. 1314-1318, May 1968.

[42] A. M. Sasson, C. Trevino, and F. Aboytes, "Improved newton-s load flow through a minimization technique," in Proc. IEEE PICA Conf., Boston, 1971.

[43] Y. P. Dusonchet, S. N. Talukdar, H. E. Sinnott, and A. H. El-Abiad, "Load flows using a combination of point Jacobi and Newton-s methods," IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-90, pp. 941-949, May/June 1971

[44] H. E. Brown, "Contingencies evaluated by a Z-matrix method," IEEE Trans.Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-88, pp. 409-412, Apr. 1969.

[45] B. Borkowska, "Probabilistic load flow", In Proc. IEEE PES Summer Meet., Vancouver, July 15-20, 1973. Paper T 73 485-0.

[46] J. F. Dopazo, 0. A. Klitin and A. M. Sasson, "Stochastic load flows," in Proc. IEEE PES Summer Meet., Anaheim, Calif., July 14-19ÔÇÿ1974. Paper T 74 308-3.

[47] A. M. Leite da Silva, V. L. Arienti, "Probabilistic load flow by a multilinear simulation algorithm," IEEE Proc. on Generation, Transmission and Distribution, July 1990, vol. 137, issue 4, pp.276- 278.

[48] .Person, "The Piecewise solution of the impedance matrix load flow", IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems, Oct 1968, vol. PAS-87, pp. 1877-1882

[49] K.Avan, U,Arifoglu, U.Kilic, "Integrated AC/DC systems load flow using genetic algorithm", in Proc. Power Engineering and Optimization Conference (PEOCO), 2011 5th International, June 2011, pp. 404-409

[50] Jen-Hao Teng, "A direct approach for distribution system load flow solutions", IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, July 2003, vol. 18, pp. 882- 887.