Evaluating Telepresence Experience and Game Players' Intention to Purchase Product Advertised in Advergame
In line with changes of consumers modern lifestyle has call for the advertising strategy to change. This research is to find out how game with telepresence and product experience embedded in the computer game to affect users- intention to purchase. Game content developers are urging to consider of placing product message as part of game design strategy that can influence the game player-s intention to purchase. Experiment was carried out on two hundred and fifty undergraduate students who volunteered to participate in the Internet game playing activities. A factor analysis and correlation analysis was performed on items designed to measure telepresence, attitudes toward telepresence, and game player intention to purchase the product advertise in the game that respondents experienced. The results indicated that telepresence consist of interactive experience and product experience. The study also found that product experience is positively related to the game players- intention to purchase. The significance of product experience implies the usefulness of an interactive advertising in the game playing to attract players- intention to purchase the advertised product placed in the creative game design.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1070131Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1502
 Winkler, T. and K. Buckner, Receptiveness of Gamers to Embedded Brand Messages in Advergames: Attitudes towards Product Placement. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 2006. 7(1): p. 37-46.
 Wallace, M. and B. Robbins. Casual Games White Paper. 2006
[cited 2008 March 17]; Available from: http://www.igda.org/casual/IGDA_CasualGames_Whitepaper_2006.pdf.
 Suh, K.S. and S. Chang, User interfaces and consumer perceptions of online stores: The role of telepresence. Behaviour & Information Technology, 2006. 25(299-113).
 Papadopoulou, P., Applying virtual reality for trust-building e-commerce environments. Virtual Reality, 2007. 11(2): p. 10 - 12.
 Baumann, S. and M. Sayette, Smoking cues in a virtual world provoke craving in cigarette smokers. Psychol Addict Behav, 2006. 20(4): p. 484 - 9.
 Reeves, B. and C. Nass, The Media Equation: how people treat computers, television, and new media like real people and places. 1996: Cambridge University Press.
 Nass, C. and Y. Moon, Machines and mindlessness: social responses to computers. Journal of Social Issues, 2000. 56(1): p. 81 - 103.
 Slater, M. and A. Steed, A virtual presence counter. Presence- Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 2000. 9(5): p. 413 - 434.
 Minsky, M., K-lines: A Theory of Memory. Cognitive Science, 1980. 4(2): p. 117 - 133.
 Sheridan, T.B., Musings on telepresence and virtual presence. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments archive, 1992. 1(1 Winter 1992): p. 120 - 126.
 Steuer, J., Defining Virtual Reality: Dimensions Determining Telepresence. Journal of Communication, 1993. 42(4): p. 73-93.
 Draper, J.V., D.B. Kaber, and J.M. Usher, Speculations on the Value of Telepresence. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 1999. 2: p. 4.
 Cox, J. and B.G. Dale, Service quality and e-commerce: an exploratory analysis Managing Service Quality, 2001. 11(2): p. 121 - 131.
 Asim, M. and Y. Hashim, E-Loyalty Companies secret weapon on the web, in Business Administration and Social Science. 2005, Lulea University of Technology.
 Scharl, A., A. Dickinger, and J. Murphy, Diffusion and success factors of mobile marketing. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 2005. 4: p. 159-1773.
 Dickey, M.D., Engaging By Design: How Engagement Strategies in Popular Computer and Video Games Can Inform Instructional Design. ETR&D, 2005. 53(2): p. 67-83.
 Coyle, J.R. and E. Thorson, The Effects of Progressive Levels of Interactivity and Vividness in Web Marketing Sites. Journal of Advertising, 2001. 30(3): p. 65 - 77.
 Kim, T. and F. Biocca, Telepresence via Television: Two Dimensions of Telepresence May Have Different Connections to Memory and Persuasion. JCMC, 1997. 3(2).
 Fattah, H. and P. Paul, Gaming gets Serious, in American Demographics. 2002. p. 39.
 Chen, Q., D.A. Griffith, and F. Shen, The Effects of Interactivity on Cross-Channel Communication Effectiveness. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 2005. 5(2): p. 30-44.
 Howard, J.A. and J.N. Sheth, The Theory of Buyer Behavior by The Journal of Marketing, 1971. 35(1).
 Mathieson, K., Predicting User Intentions: Comparing the Technology Acceptance Model with the Theory of Planned Behavior. Information Systems Research, 1991. 2(3): p. 173.
 Fishbein, M. and I. Ajzen, Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: an Introduction to Theory and Research. 1975: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
 Griffith, D.A. and Q. Chen, The Influence of Virtual Direct Experience (VDE) on On-Line Ad Message Effectiveness. Journal of Advertising, 2004. 33(1): p. 55-56.
 Li, H., T. Daugherty, and F. Biocca, "Impact of 3-D advertising on Product Knowledge, Brand Attitude, and Purchase Intention: The Mediating Role of Presence,". Journal of Advertising, 2002. 31(3): p. 43-45.
 Kwak, H., R.J. Fox, and G.M. Zinkhan, What Products Can Be Successfully Promoted and Sold via the Internet? Journal of Advertising Research, 2002(February): p. 23 - 38.
 Jasper, C.R. and S.J. Ouellette, Consumers- perception of risk and the purchase of apparel from catalogs. Journal of Direct Marketing, 1994. 8(2): p. 23 - 36.
 Cook, D.L. and E. Coupey, Consumer Behavior and Unresolved Regulatory Issues in Electronic Marketing. Journal of Business Research, 1998. 41(3): p. 231 - 238.
 Steuer, J., Defining virtual reality: Dimensions determining telepresence. Journal of Communication Research, 1992. 42(Autumn): p. 73-93.
 Fazio, R.H. and M.P. Zanna, Direct Experience and Attitude-Behavior Controversy. L. Berkowitz ed. Vol. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. 1981, New York: Academic Press.
 Shih, C.-F.E., Conceptualizing consumer experiences in cyberspace. European Journal of Marketing, 1998. 32(7/8): p. 655-663.
 Klein, L.R., Creating Virtual Product Experiences: The Role of Telepresence. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 2003. 17(1): p. 41 - 55.
 Fiore, A.M., J. Kim, and H.-H. Lee, Effect of image interactivity technology on consumer responses toward the online retailer Journal of Interactive Marketing, 2005. 19(3): p. 38 - 53.
 Witmer, B.G. and M.J. Singer, Measuring immersion in virtual environments (1014). Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, 1994.
 Biocca, F., The cyborg-s dilemma: Progressive embodiment in virtual environments. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 1997. 3(2).
 Choi, Y.K., G.E. Miracle, and F. Biocca, The Effects of Anthropomorphic Agents on Advertising Effectiveness and the Mediating Role of Presence. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 2001. 2(1): p. 3-21.
 Biocca, F. and B. Delaney, Immersive virtual reality technology, in Communication in the age of virtual reality, I.F.B.M.R. Levy, Editor. 1995, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Hillsdale, NJ. p. 57-124.
 Laurel, B., Computers as theatre. 1991, Reading: MA: Addison-Wesley.
 Rafaeli, S. and F. Sudweeks, Networked Interactivity Journal of Computer mediated Comunication, 1997. 2(4): p. 17.
 Reichheld, F.F. and P. Schefter, E-Loyalty: Your Secret Weapon on the Web (HBR OnPoint Enhanced Edition) Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation, 2000.
 Dholakia, R.R., et al., Interactivity and Revisits to Websites: A Theoretical Framework. RITIM, 2000.
 Nisbett, R.E. and L.D. Ross, Human Inference: Strategies and Shortcomings of Social Judgment. 1980, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
 Eisenmann, T., Internet Business Models - Text and Cases, . McGraw- Hill. 2002, New York: NY.
 Salo, J. and J. T├ñhtinen, Retailer Use of Permission-Based Mobile Advertising. 2005.
 Nass, C. and J. Steuer, Voices, Boxes, and Sources of Messages: Computers and Social Actors Human Communication Research, 1993. 19(4): p. 504-527.
 Lessiter, J., et al., A Cross-Media Presence Questionnaire: The ITCSense of Presence Inventory. Presence, 2001. 10(3): p. 282 - 297.
 Law, S. and K.A. Braun-LaTour, Product Placements: How to Measure Their Impact in The psychology of entertainment media: blurring the lines between entertainment and persuasion, L.J. Shrum, Editor. 2004, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: New Jersey. p. 63 - 78.
 Fiske, S.T. and S.E. Taylor, Social Cognition. 2nd ed. 1991, Singapore: McGraw Hill.
 Newhagen, J.E., J.W. Cordes, and M.R. Levy, [email protected]: Audience Scope and the Perception of Interactivity in Viewer Mail on the Internet. Journal of Communication Research, 1995. 45(3): p. 164- 75.
 Bretz, R., Media for Interactive Communication. 1983, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
 Keng, C.J. and H.Y. Lin, Impact of Telepresence Levels on Internet Advertising Effects. Cyber Psychology & Behavior, 2006. 9(1).
 Steuer, J., Defining virtual reality: Dimensions deter-mining telepresence, in Com-munication in the age of virtual reality. 1994, Lawrence Erlbaum: Hillsdale, NJ.
 Nowak, K.L. De ning and differentiating copres-ence, social presence and presence as transportation. in Presence 2001 Conference. 2001. Philadelphia: PA.
 Heeter, C., "Interactivity in the Context of Designed Experiences,". Journal of Interactive Advertising, 2000. 1(1).
 Molesworth, M., Encounters with consumption during computermediated play: the development of digital games as marketing communication media Digital Games Research Association, 2003(Level Up Conference Proceedings Utrecht: University of Utrecht).
 Grigorovici, D.M. and C.D. Constantin, Experiencing Interactive Advertising beyond Rich Media: Impacts of Ad Type and Presence on Brand Effectiveness in 3D Gaming Immersive Virtual Environments. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 2004. 5(1): p. 30-53.
 Lombard, M. and T. Ditton, At the Heart of It All: The Concept of Presence Journal of Computer mediated Comunication, 1997. 3(2): p. 1- 20.