Work Engagement of Malaysian Nurses: Exploring the Impact of Hope and Resilience
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between hope and resilience with work engagement. A total of 422 staff nurses working in three public hospitals in Peninsular Malaysia participated in this study. Statistical results using regression analysis revealed that hope and resilience were positively related to work engagement. Possible reasons for these findings, as well as their implications and future research directions are discussed.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1334395Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3163
 Adams, V.H., Snyder, C.R., Rand, K.L., King. E.A., Sigmon, D.R. & Pulvers, K.M. (2002). Hope in the workplace. In Giacolone, R. & Jurkiewicz (Eds.). Handbook of workplace spirituality and organizational performance (pp. 367-377). New York: Sharpe.
 Avey, J.B., Patera, J.L. & West, B.J. (2006). Positive psychological capital: A new lens to view absenteeism. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 13, 42-60.
 Bakker, A. B., Schaufeli, W. B., Leiter, M. P. & Taris, T. W. (2008). Work Engagement: An Emerging Concept in Occupational Health Psychology. Work Stress, 22, 187-200.
 Bakker, A.B., Gieveld, J.H. & Van Rijswijk, K. (2006). A Study on Burnout, Work Engagement and Performance. Right Management Consultants, Diemens.
 Block, J. & Kremen, A.M. (1996). IQ and ego-resiliency: Conceptual and empirical connections and separateness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 349-361.
 Bonanno, G.A. (2005). Clarifying and extending the construct of adult resilience. American Psychologist, 60, 265-267.
 Deese, M. N. (2009). Testing an Extention of the Job Demands- Resources Model: The Addition of Personal Resources as Mediators to the Resources-Engagement Relationship. (Master of Science thesis, Clemson University, 2009). UMI: 1467805.
 Gronross, C. (1983). Strategic management and marketing in the service sector. Marketing Science Institute Working Paper Series, Report No. 83-104, Marketing Science Institute, Cambridge, MA.
 Jensen, S.M. & Luthans, F. (2002). The impact of hope in the entrepreneurial process: Exploratory research findings. Decisions Sciences Institute Conference Proceedings, San Diego, CA.
 Katrinli, A., Atabay, G., Gunay, G. & Guneri, B. (2008). Leadermember exchange, organizational identification and the mediating role of job involvement for nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 64(4), 354- 362.
 Klonhlen, E. (1996). Conceptual analysis and measurement of the construct of ego-resiliency. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 1067-1079.
 Koyuncu, M., Burke, R. J. & Fiksenbaum, L. (2006). Work engagement among women managers and professionals in a Turkish bank: Potential antecedents and consequences. Equal Opportunities International, 25, 299-310.
 Lazarus, R.S. & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. Springer, New York.
 Luthans, F. & Avolio, B. (2003). Authentic leadership: A positive development approach. In Cameron, K.S., Dutton, J.E. & Quinn, R.E. (Eds.). Positive organizational scholarship (pp. 241-258). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
 Luthans, F. (2002a). The need for and meaning of positive organizational behaviour. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 695- 706.
 Luthans, F. (2002b). Positive organizational behaviour: developing and managing psychological strengths. Academy of Management Executive, 16(1), 57-72.
 Luthans, F., Avey, J.B., Avolio, B.J., Norman, S.M. & Combs, G.M. (2006). Psychological capital development: Toward a microintervention. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 27, 1-7.
 Luthans, F., Avolio, B.J., Avey, J.B. & Norman, S.M. (2007). Positive psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60, 541-572.
 Luthans, F., Avolio, B.J., Walumbwa, F.O. & Li, W. (2005). The psychological capital of Chinese workers: exploring the relationship with performance. Management and Organization Review, 1(2), 249- 271.
 Luthans, F., Luthans, K.W. & Luthans, B.C. (2004). Positive psychological capital: going beyond human and social capital. Business Horizons, 47, 45-50.
 Luthans, F., Vogelgesang, G.R. & Lester, P.B. (2006). Developing the psychological capital of resiliency. Human Resource Development Review, 5(1), 25-44.
 Luthans, F., Youssef, C.M. & Avolio, B.J. (2007). Psychological capital: Developing the human competitive edge. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
 Luthans, K.W., Lebsack, S.A. & Lebsack, R.R. (2008). Positivity in healthcare: Relation of optimism to performance. Journal of Health Organization and Management, 22(2), 178-188.
 Masten, A.S. (2001). Ordinary magic: resilience processes in development. American Psychologist, 56, 227-239.
 Mauno, S., Kinnunen, U. & Ruokolainen, M. (2007). Job demands and resources as antecedents of work engagement: A longitudinal study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 70, 149-171.
 McGee, E. (2006). The healing circle: resiliency in nurses. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 27, 43-57.
 McGrath, A., Reid, N. & Boore, J (2003). Occupational stress in nursing. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 40, 555-565.
 Moritz, P., Hinshaw, A.S. & Heinrich, J. (1989). Nursing resources and the delivery of the patient care: The national center for nursing research perspective. Journal of Nursing Administration, 19(5), 12-17.
 Peterson, S.J. & Luthans, F. (2003). The positive impact and development of hopeful leaders. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal. 24, 26-31.
 Saks, A.M. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7), 600-619.
 Salanova, M., Agut, S. & Peiro, J.M. (2005). Linking organizational resources and work engagement to employee performance and customer loyalty: The mediation of service climate. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6), 1217-1227.
 Salanova, M. and Schaufeli, W.B. (2008), A cross-national study of work engagement as a mediator between job resources and proactive behaviour, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19(1), pp.116-131.
 Schaufeli, W.B. and Bakker, A.B. (2003). UWES-utrecht work engagement scale: test manual, Department of Psychology, Utrecht University, available at: www.schaufeli.com
 Schaufeli, W.B. & Bakker, A.B. (2004). Job demands, job resources and their relationship with burnout and engagement: a multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 25, 293-315.
 Schaufeli, W.B. & Van Rhenen, W. (2006). About the role of positive and negative emotions in managers' well-being: A study using the Job-related Affective Well-being Scale (JAWS). Gedrag & Organisatie, 19, 323-344.
 Schaufeli, W.B., Bakker, A.B. & Salanova, M. (2006). The measurement of work engagement with a short questionnaire: A cross-national study. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66, 701¬716.
 Schaufeli, W.B., Tanis, T.W. & Bakker, A.B. (2006b). Dr. Jeckyll and Mr. Hyde: on the differences between work engagement and workaholism. In R.J. Burke (Eds.). Research Companion to Working Time and Addiction (pp. 193-217). Northampton, UK: Edward Elgar.
 Seligman, M.E.P. & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology. An introduction. American Psychologist, 55, 5-14.
 Snyder, C.R., Irving, L. & Anderson, J. (1991). Hope and health: Measuring the will and the ways. In Snyder, C.R. & Forsyth, D.R. (Eds.). Handbook of Social and Clinical Psychology (pp. 285-305). Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.
 Snyder, C.R., Sympson, S.C., Ybasco, F.C., Borders, T.F., Babyak, M.A. & Higgins, R.L. (1996). Development and validation of the state hope scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 321-335.
 The Star, 5 July 2007.
 Tusaie, K. & Dyer, J. (2004). Resilience: a historical review of the construct. Holistic Nursing Practice, 18, 3-10.
 Wagnild, G. & Young, H. (1993). Development and psychometric evaluation of the resiliency scale. Journal of Nursing Management, 1(2), 165-178.
 Waite, P. & Richardson, G. (2004). Determining the efficacy of resiliency training in the work site. Journal of Allied Health, 33, 178- 183 .
 Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2009). Work engagement and fmancial returns: A diary study on the role of job and personal resources. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 82(1), 183-200.
 Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A.B., Demerouti, E. & Schaufeli, W.B. (2007a). The role of personal resources in the job demands-resources model. International Journal of Stress Management, 14(2), 121-141.
 Youssef, C.M. & Luthans, F. (2007). Positive organizational behaviour in the workplace: The impact of hope, optimism and resiliency. Journal of Management, 33, 774-800.