Density, Strength, Thermal Conductivity and Leachate Characteristics of Light-Weight Fired Clay Bricks Incorporating Cigarette Butts
Several trillion cigarettes produced worldwide annually lead to many thousands of kilograms of toxic waste. Cigarette butts (CBs) accumulate in the environment due to the poor biodegradability of the cellulose acetate filters. This paper presents some of the results from a continuing study on recycling CBs into fired clay bricks. Physico-mechanical properties of fired clay bricks manufactured with different percentages of CBs are reported and discussed. The results show that the density of fired bricks was reduced by up to 30 %, depending on the percentage of CBs incorporated into the raw materials. Similarly, the compressive strength of bricks tested decreased according to the percentage of CBs included in the mix. The thermal conductivity performance of bricks was improved by 51 and 58 % for 5 and 10 % CBs content respectively. Leaching tests were carried out to investigate the levels of possible leachates of heavy metals from the manufactured clay-CB bricks. The results revealed trace amounts of heavy metals.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1334129Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4443
 U.S Department of Agriculture (USDA). (2004, September 31). Production, Supply and Distribution,
[Online]. Avalaible: http://www. fas.usda.gov/psdonline/.
 Mackay, J., Eriksen, M. and Shafey, O., "The Tobacco Atlas 2nd Edition, American Cancer Society", 2000, pp. 32-33.
 Micevskia, T., Warne, M. St. J., Pablo, F. and Patra, R., "Variation in, and causes of toxicity of cigarette butts to a cladoceran and microtox", Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. vol. 50, pp. 205-212, 2006.
 Butt Littering Trust. (2007, April, 10). About Butt Litter
[Online]. Available: http://www.buttlitteringtrust.org.
 Ach, A., "Biodegradable plastics based on cellulose acetate", J. Macromol Sci Pure Appl Chem A30, pp. 733-40, 1993.
 Brodof, T. A., "The mechanisms of cellulose acetate degradation and their relationships to environmental weathering", Presented at the 50th Tobacco Chemists- Research Conference, Richmond, Virginia, October, paper 19, 1996.
 Novotny, T. E. and Zhao, F., "Consumption and production waste: another externality of tobacco use", Tob. Control, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 75-80, 1999.
 Hoffmann, D. and Hoffmann, I., "The changing cigarette", Journal Toxic Environ Health, vol. 15, pp. 307-364, 1997.
 Li, S., Banyasz, J. L., Parrish, M. E., Lyons-Hart, J. and Shafer, K. H., "Formaldehyde in the gas phase of mainstream smoke", Journal Analyt Appl Pyrol 65, pp.137-145, 2002.
 Register, K., "Cigarette butts as litter-toxic as well as ugly?", Bull. Am. Litt. Soc. vol. 254, pp. 23-29, 2000.
 Hoffmann, D., Hoffmann, I. and El-Bayoumy, K., "The less harmful cigarette: A controversial issue", A tribute to Ernst L. Wynder, Chemical Research in Toxicology, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 767-790, 2001.
 Hecht, S. S., "Tobacco carcinogens, their biomarkers and tobaccoinduced cancer", Nature Reviews, Cancer, no. 3, pp.733-744, 2003.
 Yuan, Y., Lu, Z. X., Huang, L. J., Bie, X. M., Lu, F. X., and Li, Y., "Optimization of a medium for enhancing nicotine biodegradation by Ochrobactrum intermedium DN2", Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 101, pp. 691-697, 2006.
 Ruan, A., Min, H., Peng, X. and Huang, Z., "Isolation and characterization of Pseudomonas sp. strain HF-1, capable of degrading nicotine", Research in Microbiology, vol.156, pp.700-706, 2005.
 Hackendahl, N., Sereda, C. W. and Volmer, P. A., "The dangers of nicotine ingestion in dogs". Veterinary Science, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 218- 224, 2004.
 Salomon, M. E., Nicotine and tobacco preparations. Goldank-s Toxicologic Emergencies, 6th Ed. (L.R. Goldfrank et al.ds.), Appleton and Lange, Stanford, Conn, 1998, pp. 1145-157.
 Knox, A., "An overview of incineration and EFW technology as applied to the management of municipal solid waste (MSW)", ONEIA Energy Subcommitte. 2005.
 Turgut, P. and Yesilata, B., "Physico-mechanical and thermal performances of newly developed rubber-added bricks", Energy and Buildings, vol. 40, pp. 679-688, 2008.
 Turgut, P. and Algin, H. M., "Limestone dust and wood sawdust as brick material", Building and Environment, vol. 42, pp. 3399-3403, 2006.
 Demir, I., "An investigation on the production of construction brick with processed waste tea", Building and Environment, vol. 41, pp. 1274- 1278, 2005.
 Kayali, O., "High performance bricks from fly ash", Proceedings of the World of Coal Ash Conference, Lexinton, Kentucky, 2005.
 Lin, K. L., "Feasibility study of using brick made from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash slag". Journal of Hazardous Materials vol.137, pp.1810-1816, 2006.
 Veiseh, S. and Yousefi, A. A., "The use of polystyrene in lightweight brick production", Iranian Polymer Journal, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 324-329,2003.
 Basegio, T., Berutti, F., Bernades, A. and Bergmann, C. P., "Environmental and technical aspects of the utilization of tannery sludge as a raw material for clay products", Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol.22, pp.2251-2259, 2002.
 Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 1141.11:1996, Method 11, 1996.
 Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 12184.108.40.206:2003, Method 5.1.1, 2003.
 Abdul Kadir, A. and Mohajerani A., "Possible utilization of cigarette butts in light weight fired clay bricks", Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Paris, vol. 35, pp. 153-157, 2008.
 Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4456.1:2003, Method 1, 2003.
 International Agency for Research in Cancer. Overall evaluations of carcinogenic risk to humans: An updating of IARC Monographs, vol. 1- 42, pp. 440, Lyons, France, 1987.
 USEPA, Toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP), Method 1311, Cincinnati, 1982.
 ANSI/ANS-16.1-2003 (American Nuclear Society), Measurement of the Leachability of Solidified Low-Level Radioactive Wastes by a Short- Term Test Procedure, Illinois, 2003.
 V. Dutre and C. Vandecasteele, "Solidification/Stabilisation of arseniccontaining waste: leach tests and behaviour of arsenic in the leachate", Waste Manage., vol.15, no.1, pp. 55-62, 1995.
 Singh, T.S., Pant and K. K. Pant, "Solidification/stabilization of arsenic containing solid wastes using portland cement, fly ash and polymeric materials", Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol.131, pp.29-36, 2006.
 Electronic Blueprint. (2009, February, 22). The Premier Building Specification, Detailing and Training Reference
[Online]. Available: http://www.electronicblueprint.com.au/specifications/12- MASONRY.doc
 Arnold, W. H., Davies, S. R., Sinha, G. P., and Sinha, B. P., "Design of Masonry Structures", Taylor & Francis, 2004.
 Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 3700, 2001.
 Clews, F. H., "Heavy Clay Technology", 2nd Edition, Academic Press London, 1969.
 Solemez, M. S., "On the effective thermal conductivity", Building and environment, vol. 34, pp. 1-5, 1999.
 Dondi, M., Mazzanti, F., Principi, P., Raimondo, M., and Zanarini, G., "Thermal conductivity of clay bricks", ASCE. vol. 1, no. 8, 2004.
 Demirbas, A., "A discussion of the paper ÔÇÿThe effects of expanded perlite aggregate, silica fume and fly ash on the thermal conductivity of lightweight concrete by Ramazan Demirboga and Rustel Gul", Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 34, pp. 725, 2004.
 Blanco, F., Garcia, P., Mateos, J., and Ayala, J., "Characteristics and properties of lightweight concrete manufactured with cenospheres", Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 1715-1722, 2000.
 Glenn, G. M., Miller, R. M., and Otis, W. J., "Moderate strength lightweight concrete from organic aquagel mixtures", Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 8, pp. 133-132, 1998.
 Cement and Concrete Association of New Zealand (CCANZ), "Lightweight concrete, Information Bulletin, Section: Concrete and Concreting", NZ Concrete Construction, pp. 1-7, 1980.
 Arnold, P.J., "Thermal conductivity of masonry materials", JIHVE, vol. 37, pp. 101-108, 117, 1969.
 Ball, E. F., "Measurements of thermal conductivity of building materials", JIHVE, vol 36, pp. 51-56, 1968.
 USEPA, Hazardous Waste Characteristics Scoping Study, US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste, 1996.
 EPAV, Guidelines for Hazard Classification of Solid Prescribed Industrial Waste, Publication 996, June, 2005.