Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32146
Injuries Related to Kitesurfing

Authors: L. Lundgren, S. Brorsson, A-L Osvalder


Participation in sporting activities can lead to injury. Sport injuries have been widely studied in many sports including the more extreme categories of aquatic board sports. Kitesurfing is a relatively new water surface action sport, and has not yet been widely studied in terms of injuries and stress on the body. The aim of this study was to get information about which injuries that are most common among kitesurfing participants, where they occur, and their causes. Injuries were studied using an international open web questionnaire (n=206). The results showed that many respondents reported injuries, in total 251 injuries to knee (24%), ankle (17%), trunk (16%) and shoulders (10%), often sustained while doing jumps and tricks (40%). Among the reported injuries were joint injuries (n=101), muscle/tendon damages (n=47), wounds and cuts (n=36) and bone fractures (n=28). Also environmental factors and equipment can influence the risk of injury, or the extent of injury in a hazardous situation. Conclusively, the information from this retrospective study supports earlier studies in terms of prevalence and site of injuries. Suggestively, this information should be used for to build a foundation of knowledge about the sport for development of applications for physical training and product development.

Keywords: Kitesurfing, injuries, injury cause, questionnaire.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3183


[1] Patel, D.R., and R.J. Baker," Musculoskeletal Injuries in Sports", Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice Vol. 33, No. 2, 2006, pp. 545-579.
[2] Hincapié, C.A., E.J. Morton, and J.D. Cassidy," Musculoskeletal Injuries and Pain in Dancers: A Systematic Review", Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Vol. 89, No. 9, 2008, pp. 1819-1829.e1816.
[3] Hogan, K.A., and R.H. Gross," Overuse injuries in pediatric athletes", Orthopedic Clinics of North America Vol. 34, No. 3, 2003, pp. 405-415.
[4] Bryja, J., "Kiteboarding statistics: Worldwide participation and sales statistics", SBC Kiteboard, online: SBC Kiteboard Magazine, 2008.
[5] Scheibe, E., E. Lignitz, P. Hinz, and R. Scheibe," Kitesurfen", Rechtsmedizin Vol. 19, No. 3, 2009, pp. 145-151.
[6] Nickel, C., O. Zernial, V. Musahl, U. Hansen, T. Zantop, and W. Petersen," A Prospective Study of Kitesurfing Injuries", The American Journal of Sports Medicine Vol. 32, No. 4, 2004, pp. 921-927.
[7] Ziegler, M., U. Lockemann, and K. P├╝schel," Tödlicher Unfall beim Kitesurfingunterricht", Rechtsmedizin Vol. 19, No. 3, 2009, pp. 162-164.
[8] Exadaktylos, A.K., G.M. Sclabas, I. Blake, K. Swemmer, G. McCormick, and P. Erasmus," The kick with the kite: an analysis of kite surfing related off shore rescue missions in Cape Town, South Africa", Br J Sports Med Vol. 39, No. 5, 2005, pp. e26; discussion e26.
[9] Petersen, W., Nickel, C., Zantop, T., Zernial, O.," Verletzungen beim Kitesurfen", Der Orthopäde Vol. 34, No. 5, 2005, pp. 419-425.
[10] Spanjersberg, W.R., and I.B. Schipper," Kitesurfing: when fun turns to trauma-the dangers of a new extreme sport", The Journal of Trauma Vol. 63, No. 3, 2007, pp. E76-80.
[11] Vercruyssen, F., N. Blin, D. L'Huillier, and J. Brisswalter," Assessment of physiological demand in kitesurfing", European Journal of Applied Physiology Vol. 105, No. 1, 2009, pp. 103-109.
[12] Couper, M.P.," Web surveys - A review of issues and approaches", Public Opinion Quarterly Vol. 64, No. 4, 2000, pp. 464-494.
[13] Couper, M.P., M.W. Traugott, and M.J. Lamias," Web survey design and administration", Public Opinion Quarterly Vol. 65, No. 2, 2001, pp. 230- 253.
[14] Simotas, A.C., and T. Shen," Neck pain in demolition derby drivers", Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Vol. 86, No. 4, 2005, pp. 693-696.
[15] Gennarelli, T.A., and E. Wodzin," AIS 2005: a contemporary injury scale", Injury Vol. 37, No. 12, 2006, pp. 1083-1091.
[16] Lundgren, L., S. Brorsson, M. Hilliges, and A.-L. Osvalder," Sport performance and perceived musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort in kitesurfing", International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport Vol. 11, 2011, pp. 142-158.
[17] Kirkpatrick, D.P., R.E. Hunter, P.C. Janes, J. Mastrangelo, and R.A. Nicholas," The snowboarder's foot and ankle", The American Journal of Sports Medicine Vol. 26, No. 2, 1998, pp. 271-277.
[18] Carson, W.G.," Wakeboarding Injuries", The American Journal of Sports Medicine Vol. 32, No. 1, 2004, pp. 164-173.
[19] Torjussen, J., and R. Bahr," Injuries among competitive snowboarders at the national elite level", Am J Sports Med Vol. 33, No. 3, 2005, pp. 370- 377.
[20] Torjussen, J., and R. Bahr," Injuries among elite snowboarders (FIS Snowboard World Cup)", Br J Sports Med Vol. 40, No. 3, 2006, pp. 230- 234.
[21] Hagins, M., E. Pappas, I. Kremenic, K.F. Orishimo, and A. Rundle," The effect of an inclined landing surface on biomechanical variables during a jumping task", Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) Vol. 22, No. 9, 2007, pp. 1030-1036.
[22] AKSA, "Australian Kite Surfing Association: National Safety Survey 2004/5", 2005.
[23] Petersen, W., U. Hansen, O. Zernial, C. Nickel, and M. Prymka,"
[Mechanisms and prevention of kitesurfing injuries]", Sportverletz Sportschaden Vol. 16, No. 3, 2002, pp. 115-121.
[24] Fleming, C.M., and M. Bowden," Web-based surveys as an alternative to traditional mail methods", Journal of Environmental Management Vol. 90, No. 1, 2009, pp. 284-292.
[25] Marta-Pedroso, C., H. Freitas, and T. Domingos," Testing for the survey mode effect on contingent valuation data quality: A case study of web based versus in-person interviews", Ecological Economics Vol. 62, No. 3- 4, 2007, pp. 388-398.
[26] Berrens, R.P., A.K. Bohara, H. Jenkins-Smith, C. Silva, and D.L. Weimer," The advent of Internet surveys for political research: A comparison of telephone and Internet samples", Political Analysis Vol. 11, No. 1, 2003, pp. 1-22.
[27] Jones, S., F. Murphy, M. Edwards, and J. James," Doing things differently: advantages and disadvantages of Web questionnaires", Nurse Res Vol. 15, No. 4, 2008, pp. 15-26.