Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31821
Evaluation of an Offshore Wind Power Project: Economic, Strategic and Environmental Value

Authors: Paula Ferreira, Filipa Vieira


The use of wind energy for electricity generation is growing rapidly across the world and in Portugal. However, the geographical characteristics of the country along with the average wind regime and with the environmental restrictions imposed to these projects create limitations to the exploit of the onshore wind resource. The best onshore wind spots are already committed and the possibility of offshore wind farms in the Portuguese cost is now being considered. This paper aims to make a contribution to the evaluation of offshore wind power projects in Portugal. The technical restrictions are addressed and the strategic, environmental and financial interest of the project is analysed from the private company and public points of view. The results suggest that additional support schemes are required to ensure private investors interest for these projects. Assuming an approach of direct substitution of energy sources for electricity generation, the avoided CO2 equivalent emissions for an offshore wind power project were quantified. Based on the conclusions, future research is proposed to address the environmental and social impacts of these projects.

Keywords: Feed-in tariff, offshore wind power, project evaluation.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1786


[1] European Commission "European energy and transport. Trends to2030- update 2005", 2008 (
[2] E. Gibson and P. Howsam, "The legal framework for offshore wind farms: A critical analysis of the consents process", Energy Policy, vol. 38, pp. 4692-4702, 2010.
[3] J. Markard and R. Petersen, "The offshore trend: Structural changes in the wind power sector", Energy Policy, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 3545-3556, 2009.
[4] REN "Plano de investimentos da rede nacional de transporte 2009-2014 (2019)", 2008,
[5] EuroObserv-ER "Wind energy barometer", March 2010, pp. 42-73.
[6] EWEA "Wind Energy - The Facts", March 2009.
[7] EWEA "The Economics of Wind Energy" , March 2009.
[8] B. Snyder and M. Kaiser, "Ecological and economic cost-benefit analysis of offshore wind energy", Renewable Energy, vol. 34, pp. 1567-1578, 2009.
[9] EEA "Europe's onshore and offshore wind energy potential: An assessment of environmental and economic constraints", EEA Technical report No 6/2009.
[10] P. Söderholm and M. Pettersson, "Offshore wind power policy and planning in Sweden", Energy Policy, to be published.
[11] J. Ladenburg, "Attitudes towards on-land and offshore wind power development in Denmark; choice of development strategy", Renewable Energy, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 111-118, 2008.
[12] J. Wilson, M. Elliott, N. Cutts, L. Mander, V. Mendão, R. Perez- Dominguez and A. Phelps, "Coastal and Offshore Wind Energy Generation: Is It Environmentally Benign?", Energies, vol. 3, pp. 1383- 1422, 2009.
[13] J. Firestone and W. Kempton, "Public opinion about large offshore wind power: Underlying factors", Energy Policy, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 1584-1598, 2007.
[14] J. Ladenburg, "Attitudes towards offshore wind farmsÔÇöThe role of beach visits on attitude and demographic and attitude relations", Energy Policy, vol. 38, pp.1297-1304, 2010.
[15] K. Gee, "Offshore wind power development as affected by seascape values on the German North Sea coast", Land Use Policy, vol. 27, pp. 185-194, 2010.
[16] P. Costa, T. Sim├Áes and A. Estanqueiro, "Assessment of the sustainable offshore wind potential in Portugal", in EWEC European Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition 2006, Athens.
[17] DGGE "Renováveis. Estatísticas rápidas", May 2010. (in Portuguese).
[18] N. Markovska, V. Taseska and J. Pop-Jordanov, "SWOT analyses of the national energy sector for sustainable energy development", Energy, vol. 34, pp. 752-756, 2009.
[19] S. Ozcira, Y. Oner and N. Bekiroglu, "An economical aspect for energy focused SWOT analysis of Ukraine", in 2009 International Conference on Clean Electrical Power, 9-11 June 2009, Capri.
[20] European Commission "Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats in Energy Research", Brussels, 2005.
[21] P. Ferreira, "Electricity power planning in Portugal: The role of wind energy", PhD Thesis, UM, 2008.
[22] J. Markard and B. Truffer, "Innovation processes in large technical systems: Market liberalization as a driver for radical change?", Research Policy, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 609-625, 2006.
[23] P. Ferreira, M. Ara├║jo and E. O-Kelly, "Including non-financial aspects in project evaluation - a survey", in 15th Mini-EURO Conference Managing Uncertainty in Decision Support Models, Coimbra, Portugal, 22-24 September 2004.
[24] EEA "Annual European Union greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2008 and inventory report 2010", 27 May 2010.
[25] P. Ferreira, M. Ara├║jo and E. O-Kelly, "The impacts of wind power on power systems operation", in 3rd IASME/WSEAS International Conference on Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development, 24- 26 July, 2007.
[26] M. Portman, "Involving the public in the impact assessment of offshore renewable energy facilities", Marine Policy, vol. 33, no. 2, pp 332-338, 2009.
[27] P. Ferreira, M Ara├║jo and E. O-Kelly, "An overview of the Portuguese wind power sector", International Transactions on Operational Research, vol. 14, no.1, pp 39-54, 2007.
[28] P. Luickx, E. Delarue and W. D-haeseleer, "Impact of large amounts of wind power on the operation of an electricity generation system: Belgian case study", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 14, pp. 2019-2028, 2010.