Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30172
Environmental and Economic Scenario Analysis of the Redundant Golf Courses in Japan

Authors: Osamu Saito

Abstract:

Commercial infrastructures intended for use as leisure retreats such as golf and ski resorts have been extensively developed in many rural areas of Japan. However, following the burst of the economic bubble in the 1990s, several existing resorts faced tough management decisions and some were forced to close their business. In this study, six alternative management options for restructuring the existing golf courses (park, cemetery, biofuel production, reforestation, pasturing and abandonment) are examined and their environmental and economic impacts are quantitatively assessed. In addition, restructuring scenarios of these options and an ex-ante assessment model are developed. The scenario analysis by Monte Carlo simulation shows a clear trade-off between GHG savings and benefit/cost (B/C) ratios, of which “Restoring Nature" scenario absorbs the most CO2 among the four scenarios considered, but its B/C ratio is the lowest. This study can be used to select or examine options and scenarios of golf course management and rural environmental management policies.

Keywords: golf courses, restructuring and management options, scenario analysis, Tokyo Metropolitan Area.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1062664

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1202

References:


[1] K. Takeuchi, R. D. Brown, I. Washitani, and M. Yokohari (Eds.), SATOYAMA-Traditional rural landscape of Japan. Tokyo: Springer, 2002.
[2] K. Yamada (Eds.), Golf jo boukoku ron (in Japanese). Tokyo: Fujiwara Shoten, 1990.
[3] Teikoku Databank, "Research on the bankruptcy of golf courses in 2007," January 13, 2008, pp.1-4.
[4] O. Saito, "Restructuring existing rural resorts as a sustainable infrastructure for basin socio-ecological systems in Japan: A case of redundant golf courses in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area," Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on Sustainability Engineering and Science , Auckland, December 8-12, 2008.
[5] Adachi City (2008) "Call for project proposals of using the former public golf course site (Tomin Golf Course)," November 1, 2007. Avilable: http://www.city.adachi.tokyo.jp/006/d15700013.html (URL)
[6] Greater-kanto Industrial Advancement Center (2004) Report on the demand for cemetery and new enterprise schemes (in Japanese), March, 2004.
[7] D. Tilman, J. Hill, and C. Lehman, "Carbon-Negative Biofuels from Low-Input High-Diversity Grassland Biomass," Science, vol.314, pp.1598-1600, 2006.
[8] T. Inoue, "Pasturing by community-cattle farmers partnership in Tajima," Proc. 6th Pasture Summit, Kumamoto, 28-29 Sept., 2006, pp. 22-25.
[9] O. Saito, "Quantitative and spatial changes in woodland vegetation for the last 40 years in the Kanto Region," Japan. Theory and Applications of GIS, vo.12, no.2, pp.145-154, 2004.
[10] Future Foundation and Newcastle University, Rural Futures Project: Scenario Creation and Backcasting. (Prepared for Defra), Project SD0303, Nebember, 2005.
[11] University of Tokyo RCAST & Dentsu Inc., Lifestyles of Decarbonized Society in 2050, Tokyo, Dentsu Inc., 2007.
[12] H.Kurita, and M. Yokohari, "Ecological Potentials of Golf Courses on Hills for Conservation of Satoyama Landscape," Landscape Research Japan, vol.64, no.5, 2001, pp.589-594.
[13] S. Yasuda, & M.. Yokohari, (2002). "Ecological potential of Golf Courses on Satoyama Hills for Biomass Energy Utilization," Landscape Research Japan, vol.65, no.5, 2002, pp.497-500.
[14] Mitsubishi Research Institute, "Estimating Energy Consumption of Service Sector,", August 8, 2007.
[15] Ministry of the Environment and Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Manual for Calculating and Reporting GHGs Emission Ver.2.3, May, 2008.
[16] Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, 2004 Survey of Selected Service Industries - Golf Courses, Tokyo: Economy, Trade and Industry Statistics Association, December 2005.
[17] Y. Otani, "Carbon Dioxide Flux," Shinrin-Kagaku, vol.33, 2001, pp.10-17.
[18] Architectural Institute of Japan, Guideline of Building Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Tokyo: Maruzen, November 1999.
[19] The Energy Data and Modelling Center, The Institute of Energy Economics, Japan, 2005 Handbook of Energy and Economic Statistics in Japan, Tokyo: The Energy Conservation Center, Japan, February 2005.
[20] House Cleaning Kumamoto Sun-Amenity, "Weed Removal Works." Available: http://www.sunamenity.com/kusakari/index.html (URL)
[21] Takarazuka City, "Summary of the New Park Cemetery Development Plan," 2008. Available: http://www.city.takarazuka.hyogo.jp/?PTN=LV3&LV2=6&LV3=32&L V4=0®id=575 (URL)
[22] Chita City, "Chita Cemetery Development Project," 2005. Available: http://www.city.chita.aichi.jp/soumu/soumu/zaisei/tousyo-yosan/juuten/ h17/uruoi17.pdf (URL)
[23] Japan Petroleum Energy Center, Report on R&D of Second Generation Biofuel Production Technologies, March 2007
[24] J.Hill, E. Nelson, D. Tilman, S. Polasky, and D. Tiffany "Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels," PNAS, vol.103, no.30, 2006, pp. 11206-11210.
[25] Ashiya City, "2005 Project Check sheet of Ashiya City Cemetery," 2005. Available: http://www.city.ashiya.hyogo.jp/pm/s17/html/4340010.html (URL)
[26] Moka City, private communication on the bio-ethanol plant in Moka City, January 28, 2009.
[27] Biofuel Technology Innovation Council, Biofuel Technology Innovation Plan, March 2008.Available: http://www.enecho.meti.go.jp/policy/fuel/080404/hontai.pdf (URL)
[28] New Energy Foundation (eds.), Biomass Engineering Handbook, Tokyo: Ohmsha. October 2008.
[29] Hexatube, "Comparison of Forest Management Costs." Available: http://www.hexatube.com/fuseiseki-kaisyoku.pdf (URL)
[30] Japan Livestock Industry Association, "Diagnosis of Livestock Management - National Summary 2001." Available: http://cali.lin.go.jp/cali/db/kumi/html/cx/cx13/rakunou13/pdf/XD1_2001 006.PDF (URL)
[31] R.A. Tanner, A.C. Gange, "Effects of golf courses on local biodiversity," Landscape and Urban Planning, vol.71, 2005, pp.137-146.
[32] M. Yasuda and F. Koike, "Do golf courses provide a refuge for flora and fauna in Japanese urban landscape?" Landscape and Urban Planning, vol.75, 2006, pp.58-68.