Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30135
A Study on the Leadership Behavior, Safety Culture, and Safety Performance of the Healthcare Industry

Authors: Cheng-Chia Yang , Yi-Shun Wang , Sue-Ting Chang, Suh-Er Guo, Mei-Fen Huang

Abstract:

Object: Review recent publications of patient safety culture to investigate the relationship between leadership behavior, safety culture, and safety performance in the healthcare industry. Method: This study is a cross-sectional study, 350 questionnaires were mailed to hospital workers with 195 valid responses obtained, and a 55.7% valid response rate. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was carried out to test the factor structure and determine if the composite reliability was significant with a factor loading of >0.5, resulting in an acceptable model fit. Results: Through the analysis of One-way ANOVA, the results showed that physicians significantly have more negative patient safety culture perceptions and safety performance perceptions than non- physicians. Conclusions: The path analysis results show that leadership behavior affects safety culture and safety performance in the health care industry. Safety performance was affected and improved with contingency leadership and a positive patient safety organization culture. The study suggests improving safety performance by providing a well-managed system that includes: consideration of leadership, hospital worker training courses, and a solid safety reporting system.

Keywords: Leadership Behavior, Patient Safety, Safety Culture, Safety Performance

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1062282

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3240

References:


[1] L. T. Kohn, J. M. Corrigan, and M.S. Donaldson, To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System. Institute of Medicine Report, Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000.
[2] Department of Health, "An Organization with a Memory: Report of an expert group on learning from adverse events in the NHS chaired by the Chief Medical Officer," London, 2000, pp. 35.
[3] G.R. Baker, P. Norton, Patient Safety and Healthcare Error in the Canadian Healthcare System: A Systematic Review and Analysis of Leading Practices in Canada with Reference to Key Initiatives Elsewhere, A report to Health Canada, Ottawa: Health Canada, 2002.
[4] "Strategies for leadership: An Organizational Approach to Patient Safety". http://www.ihatoday.org/issues/safety/tools/vhatoolfinal.pdf
[5] S. J. Singer, D. M. Gaba, J. J. Geppert, A. D. Sinaiko, S. K. Howard, and K. C. Park, "The culture of safety: results of an organization-wide survey in 15 California hospitals," Quality and Safety in Health Care, vol. 12, pp. 112-118, 2003.
[6] J. B. Sexton, E. J. Thomas, R. L. Helmreich, et al. (2004) Frontline assessments of healthcare culture: Safety Attitudes Questionnaire norms and psychometric properties. Austin, TX: The University of Texas Center of Excellence for Patient Safety Research and Practice, Technical Report No. 04-01. Grant No.1PO1HS1154401. Sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. http://www.uth.tmc.edu/schools/med/imed/patient_safety/SAQ_Norms _and_Psychometric_Properties_for_Website.pdf.
[7] P. J. Pronovost, B. Weast, C. G. Holzmueller, B. J. Rosenstein, R. P. Kidwell, K. Haller, et al, "Evaluation of the culture of safety: Survey of clinicians and managers in an academic medical center," Qual Saf Health Car, vol. 12, pp. 405-410, 2003.
[8] D. M. DeJoy, B. S. Schaffer, M. G. Wilson, R. J. Vandenberg, and M. M. Butts, "Creating safer workplaces: assessing the determinants and role of safety climate," Journal Safety Research, vol. 35, pp. 81-90, 2004.
[9] L. J. Weng, "The Perception of healthcare workers a hospital safety culture," M.S. thesis, institute and department of pubic health, Kaohsiung Medical university, 2004.
[10] Y. T. Kuo, "Physicians- Perception of Patient Safety Culture and Practices in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Taiwan," M.S. thesis, department and graduate institute of health care management, Chang Gung University, 2004.
[11] C. L. Shih, "An Exploratory Study of Patient Safety Culture in Hospitals: Patient Safety Climate and its Association with Hospital Workers- Safety Practice," M.S. thesis, graduate institute of health care organization administration, national Taiwan university, 2004.
[12] R. Flin and S. Yule, "leadership for safety: industrial experience," Qual Saf Health Care, vol. 13, pp. 180-184, 2004.
[13] T. C. Wu, "The Correlational Study between Safety Climate and Safety Performance in Four Categories of Manufacturing Industries in Central Taiwan," Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Industrial Education and Technology, National Changhua University of Education, 2000.
[14] A. Neal, M. A. Griffin, and P. M. Hart, "The impact of organizational climate on safety climate and individual behavior," Safety Science, vol. 34, pp. 99-109, 2000.
[15] M. F. Hsieh, "The Impact of Safety Climate on Safety performance ÔÇö A Case Study of Highway Bus Drivers," M.S. thesis, department of transportation and communication management science, National Cheng Kung University, 2003.
[16] O. L. Siu, D. R. Phillip, and T. W. Leung, "Safety climate and safety performance among construction workers in Hong Kong the role of psychological strains as mediators," Accident analysis and prevention vol. 36, pp. 359-366, 2004.
[17] Y. H. Huang., M. RO, G. S. Smith, and P. Y. Chen. "Safety climate and self-reported injury: Assessing the mediating role of employee safety control, "Accident Analysis & Prevention, vol.38, pp.425-433.
[18] T.C. Wu, C.H Chen, C.C Li.,"A correlation among safety leadership, safety climate and safety performance," Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 21 307-318.2008
[19] R.S. Stricoff, "Safety Performance Measurement: Identifying Prospective Indicators with High Validity," Professional Safety, 45(1), pp.36-39.2000.
[20] P. Swuste, "Editorial: WOS2006, regulatory issues, safety climate, culture, and management," Safety Science, 46(3): 345-348.2008.
[21] D. Zohar, "Safety climate in industrial organizations: Theoretical and applied implications," Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 65, no. 1, pp.96-102, 1980.
[22] T. Cox, and S. Cox, "The structure of employee attitudes to safety an European example," Work and Stress, vol. 5, no. 2, pp.93-106, 1991.
[23] E.H. Schein, "Organizational culture and leadership". 2nd edition. San Francisco: Jossey-bass.1992.
[24] F. W. Guldenmund, "The nature of safety culture a review of theory and research," Safety Science, vol. 34, no. 1-3, pp. 215-257, 2000.
[25] M. D. Cooper, "Towards a model of safety culture," Safety Science, vol. 36, pp.111-136, 2000.
[26] M. O-Toole, "The relationship between employees- perceptions of safety and organizational culture," Safety Research, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 231-243, 2002.
[27] A. Neal, M. A. Griffin, and P. M. Hart, "The impact of organizational climate on safety climate and individual behavior," Safety Science, 34, pp.99-109.2000
[28] A. Neal, and M. A. Griffin, "Safety climate and safety behavior," Australian Journal of Management, 27, 67-77.2002
[29] L. C. Lin, "The Effect of Safety Climate on Safety Performance --- A Case of Container Terminal Operators in Kaohsiung Port," M.S. thesis, department of transportation and communication management science, National Cheng Kung University, 2003.
[30] T. Katz-Navon, E. Naveh, Z. Stern, "Safety climate in healthcare organizations: a multidimensional approach," Academy of Management 48 (6), 1075-1089.2005
[31] Y.H. Huang, M. Ho, G. S. Smith, , & P. Y. Chen, "Safety climate and self-reported injury: Assessing the mediating role of employee safety control," Accident Analysis and Prevention, 38(3), 425-433.2006
[32] G N. Stock, K L. McFadden, C R. Gowen, "Organizational culture, critical success factors, and the reduction of hospital errors," International Journal of Production Economics, 106(2), 368-392.2007
[33] J. K. Hemphill and A. E. Coons, "Development of the leader Behavior Description Questionnaire. In R.M. Stogdill & A.E.Coons Eds. . Leader behavior Its description and measurement," Columbus Bureau of Business Research, Ohio State University, 1957.
[34] R. White and R. Lippert, Leader Behavior and Member Reaction in Three Social Climates. In Cartwright D. and Zander A.eds. Group Dynamics:Research and Theory, New York: Harper & Row, 1953, pp.385-611.
[35] R. Pater, "Leadership skills for 21st century, Proceedings of ASSE Professional Development Conference and Exposition. Anaheim, California," Session, vol. 631, pp. 1-10, 2001.
[36] T.-C Wu, C.-W .Liu, & M.-C. Lu, Safety climate in university and college laboratories: Impact of organizational and individual factors. Journal of Safety Research, 38(1), 91-102.2007
[37] A. O-Dea, & R. Flin., "Site managers and safety leadership in the offshore oil and gas industry," Safety Science, 37(1), 39-57.2001
[38] D. Zohar, "The effects of leadership dimensions, safety climate, and assigned priorities on minor injuries in work groups," Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 75-92, 2002.
[39] J. S. Lee, "The relationship study of the hospital organization culture, leadership, and organizational citizenship behaviors," M.S. thesis, institute of human resource, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 2002.
[40] D. Zohar, The influence of leadership and climate on occupational health and safety. In D.A. Hofmann & L.E. Tetrick (Eds.) Health and Safety in Organizations: A Multilevel Perspective, 201-232, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.2003
[41] S. Clarke & K. Ward, "The Role of Leader Influence Tactics and Safety Climate in Engaging Employees' Safety Participation," Risk Analysis, 26(5), 1175-1185.2006.