Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31821
Ready or Not? Markers of Starting Romantic Intimacy at Emerging Adulthood: The Turkish Experience

Authors: Ali Eryılmaz, Hasan Atak


Emerging adulthood, the new period which is especially prevalent in the developed or industrialized countries during ages 18 to 29, is a new conceptualization proposed by Arnett. Intimacy is a superordinate concept which includes intimate interaction and intimate relationship. This study includes two proceses which are scale development and conduction of gender differences about markers of starting romantic intimacy among Turkish emerging adults. In first process, Markers of Starting Romantic Intimacy Scale, with 17 items and 5 factors, was developed using by 220 participants. In the second step, the scale was administered to 318 Turkish male and female emerging adults between ages 22 and 25. Results show that there is no significant difference between gender and total score of the scale. With respect to gender, there are significant differences between gender and in four subscales which are self perception, affective and cognitive intimacy, self knowledge and romantic verbalizations. Moreover, there is no significant relationship between gender and behavioral intimacy subscale.

Keywords: Emerging Adulthood, Turkey, Romantic Intimac, Relationship, Marker.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1856


[1] Register, L. and Henley, T. (1992) The Phenomenology of Intimacy. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 9,467-481.
[2] Moss, B. F., & Schwebel, A. I. (1993). Marriage and romantic relationships: defining intimacy in romantic relationships. Family Relations, 42, 7-31.
[3] Robson, D. and Robson, M. (1998) Intimacy and Computer Communication. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 26(1):33-42.
[4] Prager, K. J. (1995). The psychology of intimacy. New York: The Guilford Press.
[5] Reis, H. T. ,& Shaver, P. (1988). Intimacy as interpersonal process. In S. Duck (Ed.), Handbook of Personal Relationships: Theory, relationships, and interventions (367-389). Chichester, UK: Willey
[6] Sexton, R.E. , & Sexton, V.S. (1982). Intimacy: A historical perspective. In M. Fisher and G. Stricker (Eds.), Intimacy (pp. 1-20). New York: Plenum.
[7] Perlman, D. , & Fehr, B. (1987). The development of intimate relationships. In D. Perlman & S. Duck (Eds.), Intimate Relationships: Development, Dynamics, and Deterioration (pp. 13-42). Newbury Park, CA: Sage
[8] Battarbee, K., Baerten, N. and Loeber, S. (2002) Pools and Satellites Intimacy in the City. Proceedings of DIS 2002, ACM, 237-245.
[9] Chelune, G.J., Robison, J.T. and Kommor, M.J. (1984) A Cognitive Interactional Model of Intimate Relationships. In Derlega, V.J. (ed.) (1984) Communication, Intimacy, and Close Relationships. Academic Press, Inc., New York.
[10] Cheal, D. (1987) 'Showing them you love them': Gift giving and the dialectic of intimacy. The sociological Review, 35(1):150-169.
[11] Duck, S. (1994). Dynamics of relationships. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
[12] Hatfield, E. (1988). Passionate and companionate love. In R. J. Sternberg., & M. L. Barnes (Eds.), The pscyhology of love (p.191-213). New Haven and London: Yale University Pres.
[13] Sternberg, R. J. (1986). Triangulating love. Psychological Rewiev, 93, 119-135.
[14] Sternberg, R. J. (1988). A triangular theory of love. İn R.J. Sternberg., & M.L. Barnes (Eds.), The pscyhology of love (P.68-99). New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
[15] Sternberg, R. J. (1999). Cupid-s Arrow: The Course of Love Through Time. UK: Cambridge Universty Press.
[16] Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.
[17] Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55, 469-480.
[18] Arnett, J. J. (2004). Emerging adulthood: The winding road from the late teens through the twenties. New York: Oxford University Press.
[19] Arnett, J. J. (2001). Conceptions of the transition to adulthood: Perspectives from adolescence to midlife. Journal of Adult Development, 8, 133-143.
[20] Arnett, J. J. (2003). Conceptions of the transition to adulthood among emerging adults in American ethnic groups. In J. J. Arnett and N. L. Galambos (Eds.), New directions for child and adolescent development: Exploring cultural conceptions of the transition to adulthood (No. 100, pp. 63-76). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
[21] Casper, L. M., & S. M. Bianchi. (2002). Continuity and Change in the American Family. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
[22] Facio, A. & Micocci, F. (2003). Emerging adulthood in Argentina. In J. J. Arnett and N. L. Galambos (Eds.), New directions for child and adolescent development: Exploring cultural conceptions of the transition to adulthood (No. 100, pp. 5-20). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
[23] Mayseless, O. and Scharf, M. (2003). What does it mean to be an adult? The Israeli experience. In J. J. Arnett and N. L. Galambos (Eds.), New directions for child and adolescent development: Exploring cultural conceptions of the transition to adulthood (No. 100, pp. 21-32). San Francisco:Jossey-Bass.
[24] Nelson, L. J. (2003). Rites of passage in emerging adulthood: Perspectives of young Mormons. In J. J. Arnett and N. L. Galambos (Eds.), New directions for child and adolescent development: Exploring cultural conceptions of the transition to adulthood (pp. 33-49). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
[25] Maccoby, E. E. (1998). The two sexes:Growing up apart, coming together. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
[26] Connely, J. & Goldberg, A. (1999). Romantic relationships in adolescence: The role of friends and peers in the emergence and developmant. In W. Furman, B. B. Brown, & C. Feiring, (Eds.), The development of romantic relationships in adolescence (266-290). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
[27] Gray, M., & Steinberg, L. (1999). Unpacking authoritative parenting: Reassesing a multiddimensional construct. Journal of Marriage on the Family, 61,574-587.
[28] Collins, W. A. (2003). More than myth: The developmental significiance of romantic relationships in adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 52, 25-42.
[29] Lefkowitz, E.S., Bone, T. L., Shearer, C. L. (2003). Communication with best friends about sex-related topics during emerging adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 9, 52-57.
[30] Brown, M.T. (1989). A cross-sectional analysis of self-disclosure patterns. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 11, 384-395.
[31] Duck, S. (1988). Relating to others. London: Sage Publications.
[32] Duck, S. (1993). Induvidual in relationships. London: Sage Publications.
[33] Bonn, S. D. (1994). Dispelling doubt and uncartainity: Trust in romantic relationships. In S. Duck (Eds.). Dynamics of relationships. London: Sage Publications.
[34] Murstein, B. I. (1986). Paths to marriage. London:Sage Publications.
[35] Myers, D. G. (1996). Social psychology. USA: The McGraw-Hill Companies.
[36] Guneri, O., Sumer, Z. & Y─▒ld─▒r─▒m, A. (1999). Sources of self-identity among Turkish adolescents, Adolescence. 34, 135, 535-546.
[37] TDHS-2003, Turkey Demographic and Health Survey. (2004). Hacettepe University, Ankara.
[38] Ery─▒lmaz, A. Perceived control to start romantic intimacy at adolescence and young adulthood periods. paper presented at the Xth Conference of European Association for Research on Adolescence, Antalya, Turkey, May 2-6 2006.
[39] Schwartz S., Cote J. and Arnett, J. J. (2005). Identity and agency in emerging adulthood:Two developmental routes in the individualization process. Youth and Society, Vol. 37 No. 2, December 2005 201-229.
[40] Atak, H. & Çok, F. Emerging adulthood and perceived adulthood in Turkey, 3rd Conference on Emerging Adulthood, Tucson, AZ, USA, 15- 16 February 2007.
[41] Altman, I. and Taylor, D.A. (1973) Social Penetration: The development of interpersonal relationships. Holt, New York.
[42] Levinger, G. and Senn, D.J. (1967) Disclosure of feelings in marriage. Merill-Palmer Quarterly, 13, 237-249.
[43] Kag─▒tc─▒bas─▒, C. (1996). Family and human development Across Cultures. Lawrence Erlbaum Ass. NJ.
[44] Atak, H., Adulthood criteria in Turkey: Equilibrium or limitation?, XIV. National Psychology Congress, Hacettepe University, Ankara, 6-8 September 2006.
[45] Buss, D., & Barnes, M. (1986). Preferences in human mate selection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 3: 559-570.