Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30075
Digital Narrative as a Change Agent to Teach Reading to Media-Centric Students
Authors: Robert F. Kenny
Abstract:Because today-s media centric students have adopted digital as their native form of communication, teachers are having increasingly difficult time motivating reluctant readers to read and write. Our research has shown these text-averse individuals can learn to understand the importance of reading and writing if the instruction is based on digital narratives. While these students are naturally attracted to story, they are better at consuming them than creating them. Therefore, any intervention that utilizes story as its basis needs to include instruction on the elements of story making. This paper presents a series of digitally-based tools to identify potential weaknesses of visually impaired visual learners and to help motivate these and other media-centric students to select and complete books that are assigned to them
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1062132Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1137
 W. J. Ong, Orality and Literacy: The Technology of the Word. London, Routledge, 1982.
 M. Prensky, Digital Games-Based Learning. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001.
 K.S. Cennamo, W.C. Saveneye, and P.L. Smith, "Mental effort and video-based learning: The relationship between preconceptions and the effects of interactive and covert practice". Educational Technology Research and Development, vol. 39, pp.5-16, 1988.
 N. Cowan, "Children's memories according to fuzzy-trace theory: An endorsement of the theories purpose and some suggestions to improve its application". Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, vol. 71(2), pp. 144-154, 1998.
 M.A. Greenwald, "A survey of reading instrument usage in New Jersey Public School Reading Programs, Grades K-12". ERIC Document Reproduction Service: ED 056 844, 1972.
 J. M. Healy, Failure to Connect: How Computers Affect Our Children-s Minds and What We Can Do about It, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988.
 A. Lang and M. Basil, "Attention, resource allocation, and communication research: What do secondary task reaction times measure anyway?" In M. Roloff (ed.) Mass Communication Yearbook. Beverly Hills Ca: Sage, p. 21, 1998.
 Lang, P. Bolls, R. Potter, and K. Kawahara, "The effects of production pacing and arousing content on the information processing of television messages". Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, vol. 43(4), pp. 451-468, 1999.
 A. Lang, S. Zhou, N. Schwartz, P. Bolis, and R. Potter, "The effects of edits on arousal, attention, and memory for television messages: When an edit is an edit, can an edit be too much?", Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, vol. 44(1), pp. 94-109, 2000.
 D. Tapscott, Growing Up Digital: The Rise of the Net Generation. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999.
 K. M. Bradt, Story As a Way of Knowing., Kansas City, MO: Sheed and Ward, 1997.
 J. Bruner, Actual Minds Possible Worlds. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1986.
 B.W. Mott, C.B. Callaway, and L.S. Zetlemoyer, "Towards narrativecentered learning environments", Available: http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/253172.html. Accessed: October 31, 2007.
 R. Kenny, R. and G.A. Gunter, "Literacy through the arts". Paper presented at the 28th Annual Conference of AECT, Orlando, FL, 2005, November.
 M. Neiderman, R. Kenny, A. Sanchez, and M. Croft, "A changing narrative paradigm". Presentation made at the Broadcast Education Association Annual Conference. Las Vegas, NV, April 22, 2005.
 D. E. Barrett, Reflection-impulsivity as a predictor of children-s academic achievement", Child Development, vol. 48(8), pp. 1443-1447, 1977.
 M. Spinella, and W.M. Miley, "Impulsivity and academic achievement in college students". College Student Journal, 2003, December.
 M. Gladwell, The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2000.
 M. McLuhan. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965.
 R. Doman, "Learning problems and attention deficits", Journal of the National Academy for Child Development, vol. 4(6), 1984.
 M. Shichida., Science of Intelligence and Creativity. Emigrant, MT: Oatmeal Angels, 1994.
 R.M. Restak, The New Brain: How the Modern Age Is Rewiring Your Mind. New York: Rodale St. Martins Press, 2003.
 J. Kagan, B.L. Rosman, D. Day, J. Albert, and W. Phillips, "Information processing in the child: Significance of analytical and reflective attitudes", Psychological Monographs, vol. 78(1), 1964.
 L. Cooper., "Strategies for visual comparison and representation: Individual differences", Advances in Psychology of Human Performance. R.J. Sternberg, (ed). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1982.
 J.G. Hedberg and S.E. McNamara, "Matching feedback and cognitive style in visual CAI tasks", Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (ERIC Document Reproduction Service: No. ED 260 105), Chicago, IL, 1985, March 31 - April 4.
 E.H. Ridberg, R.D. Parke, and E.M. Hetherington, "Modification of impulsive and reflective cognitive styles through observation of filmmediated models", Journal of Experimental Psychology, vol. 5(3), pp. 369-377, 1970.
 D.S. Campbell and R. B. Davis, "On the validity of reflectionimpulsivity as a construct in classroom research", Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York. ERIC Document Reproduction Service: No. ED 222 502), (1982, March).
 J.J.G. van Merri├½nboer, "Instructional strategies for teaching computer programming: Interactions with the cognitive style reflectionimpulsivity", Journal of Research on Computing in Education, vol. 23(1), 1990.
 J. Cairns and T. Cammock, "The development of a more reliable version of the Matching Familiar Figures Test". Developmental Psychology, vol. 5, pp. 555-560, 1978.
 J. Cairns and T. Cammock, "The 20-item matching familiar figures test". (ERIC Document Reproduction Service: No. 015681-4), 1984.
 G. Buela-Casal, H. Carretero-Dios, M. del os Santos-Roig, and M. P. Berm├║dez. "Psychometric properties of a Spanish adaptation of the matching familiar figures test (MFFT-20)", European Journal of Psychological Assessment, vol. 19(2), pp. 151-159, 2003.
 J. Miyakawa, "Performance on Matching Familiar Figures Test, classroom behaviors, and school achievements of elementary school children in Japan", Japanese Journal of Psychology, 72, 2001.
 G.A. Gunter and R.F. Kenny, "Digital booktalk: Digital media for reluctant readers". Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education - Current Practices, 2008, in Press.
 D. Siever, "Audio-visual entrainment: Applying audio-visual entrainment technology for attention and learning", Available: http://www.mindalive.com. Accessed October 17, 2007.
 D.A. Waring, C.B. Farthing, and P. Kidder-Ashley, "Impulsive response style affects in computer administered multiple choice test performance". Journal of Instructional Psychology, 1999, June.
 J. D. Fletcher, "Effectiveness and cost of video disc instruction". Machine Mediated Learning., vol. 3, pp. 361-385, 1991.
 M. A. Okun, W.M. Callistus, and L.B. Knoblock, "Adult age differences in cognitive tempo". Annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco. ERIC Document Reproduction Service ED 174 632, 1999.
 J.C. Wright and A.G. Vliestra, "Reflection-impulsivity and informationprocessing from three to nine years of age". In M. Fine (ed.), Intervention with Hyperactivity. Springfield IL: Thomas, 1977.
 R. F. Kenny., The Effects of Cognitive Style and Gender on Verbatim And Gist Memory for Rapidly-Presented Montage Video. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2002.
 R.F. Kenny, Evaluating cognitive tempo In the digital age, Educational Technology research and Development, DOI: 10.1007/s11423-007- 9035-8, 2007, March 13.
 R.F. Kenny, G.A. Gunter, "Enhancing literacy skills through digital narrative", The Journal of Media Literacy, 2006.
 R. Feuerstein, Instrumental Enrichment: An Intervention for Cognitive Modificability. Glenview, IL: Scott, Forseman and Co, 1980.
 M Joos, "The styles of the five clocks". In R.D. Abrahams and R.C. Troike (Eds.) Language and Cultural Diversity in American Education. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1967.
 R.K. Payne, "Understanding and working with children from poverty". Instructional Leader. Vol. 9(2). Available: http://homepages.wmich.edu/~ljohnson/Payne.pdf. Accessed April 24, 2007
 R. Payne, P. Devol, P., and Y.D. Smith, Bridges Out of Poverty: Strategies for Professionals and Communities (2nd ed.). New York: Aha Process, 2000.
 G.A. Shelly, T.J. Cashman, R.E. Gunter, and G.A. Gunter, Teachers Discovering Computers: Integrating Technology and Digital Media in the Classroom (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Course Technology, 2008.
 M. Squire, "Video games in education", International Journal of Simulations and Gaming. Available: http://simschiilresources.edreform.net, Accessed October 1, 2007.
 J. Swenson, C.A. Rozema, E. McGrail, and P. Whitin, "Beliefs about technology and the preparation of English teachers: Beginning the conversation", Available Online] Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, vol. 5(3/4). Available: http://www.citejournal.org/vol5/iss3/languagearts/article1.cfm, Accessed June 28, 2007.
 J.V. Oakhil and N.M. Yuill, "Higher order factors in comprehensive disability: Processes and remediation". In C. Cornoldi and J.V. Oakhill (Eds.), Reading Comprehension Difficulties: Processes and Remediation, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc, 1996.
 J.A. Bulgren and B.K. Lenz, "Strategic instruction in the content areas". In D. D. Dreshler, E.S. Ellis, and B.K. Lenz (Eds.). Teaching Adolescents with Learning Disabilities: Strategies and Methods (2nd ed.), in E. L Deci, R. Koestner, and R. M. Ryan, "A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation". Psychological Bulletin, vol. 125, pp. 627-668, 1999.
 M. Vansteenkiste, J. Simons, W. Lens, K.M. Sheldon, and E.L. Deci, "Motivating learning, performance, and persistence: The synergistic effects of intrinsic goal contents and autonomy-supportive contexts". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 87, pp. 246-260, 2004.
 C. McKnight, A. Magid, T.J. Murphy, and M. McKnight, Mathematics Education Research: A Guide for the Research Mathematician. Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society, 2000.
 D. Reinking, "Multimedia learning of reading". In R.E. Mayer (ed)., The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 355-374, 2005.
 K. Eriksson, "Booktalk Dilemmas: Teachers' organisation of pupils' reading". Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, vol. 46(4), pp. 391-408, 2002.
 S. Krashen.,"Accelerated reader: Does it work? If so, why?". School Libraries in Canada, vol. 22(2), pp. 24-26, 2002.
 R. Kenny, "Growing up digital: Implications for teaching and learning". The iDMAa Journal, vol. 2(2), 2005.
 National Reading Panel. (2000), "Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction". National Institute of Health, Available: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/nrp/smallbook.cfm. Accessed July 25, 2007.