Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31009
The Effect of Complementary Irrigation in Different Growth Stages on Yield, Qualitative and Quantitative Indices of the Two Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars in Mazandaran

Authors: Abbas Ghanbari-Malidarreh


In most wheat growing moderate regions and especially in the north of Iran climate, is affected grain filling by several physical and abiotic stresses. In this region, grain filling often occurs when temperatures are increasing and moisture supply is decreasing. The experiment was designed in RCBD with split plot arrangements with four replications. Four irrigation treatments included (I0) no irrigation (check); (I1) one irrigation (50 mm) at heading stage; (I2) two irrigation (100 mm) at heading and anthesis stage; and (I3) three irrigation (150 mm) at heading, anthesis and early grain filling growth stage, two wheat cultivars (Milan and Shanghai) were cultured in the experiment. Totally raining was 453 mm during the growth season. The result indicated that biological yield, grain yield and harvest index were significantly affected by irrigation levels. I3 treatment produced more tillers number in m2, fertile tillers number in m2, harvest index and biological yield. Milan produced more tillers number in m2, fertile tillers in m2, while Shanghai produced heavier tillers and grain 1000 weight. Plant height was significant in wheat varieties while were not statistically significant in irrigation levels. Milan produced more grain yield, harvest index and biological yield. Grain yield shown that I1, I2, and I3 produced increasing of 5228 (21%), 5460 (27%) and 5670 (29%) kg ha-1, respectively. There was an interaction of irrigation and cultivar on grain yields. In the absence of the irrigation reduced grain 1000 weight from 45 to 40 g. No irrigation reduced soil moisture extraction during the grain filling stage. Current assimilation as a source of carbon for grain filling depends on the light intercepting viable green surfaces of the plant after anthesis that due to natural senescence and the effect of various stresses. At the same time the demand by the growing grain is increasing. It is concluded from research work that wheat crop irrigated Milan cultivar could increase the grain yield in comparison with Shanghai cultivar. Although, the grain yield of Shanghai under irrigation was slightly lower than Milan. This grain yield also was related to weather condition, sowing date, plant density and location conditions and management of fertilizers, because there was not significant difference in biological and straw yield. The best result was produced by I1 treatment. I2 and I3 treatments were not significantly difference with I1 treatment. Grain yield of I1 indicated that wheat is under soil moisture deficiency. Therefore, I1 irrigation was better than I0.

Keywords: irrigation, Wheat, grain yield, anthesis, supplementary

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1360


[1] Z. Tahmasebi Sarvestani, S. A. M. Modarres Sanavy, and A. Roohi, "Yield and yield components of dryland wheat genotypes under supplemental irrigation," Proceedings of the 4th International Crop Science Congress Brisbane, Australia, 2004.
[2] F. R. Li, S. Cook, G. T. Geballe, and W. R. Burch, "Rainwater harvesting agriculture: An integrated system for water management on rainfed land in China's semiarid areas," Ambio., Vol. 29, pp.477-483, 2000.
[3] F. M. Li, Q. H. Song, H. S. Liu, F. R. Li, and X. L. Liu, "Effects of preplant irrigation and phosphate application on water use and yield of spring wheat under semi-arid conditions," Agric. Water Manage, Vol. 45, pp. 32-48, 2001.
[4] X. Y. Li, J. D. Gong, and Q. Z. Gao,"Rainfall harvesting and sustainable agriculture development in the Loess Plateau of China," J. Desert Res., Vol. 20, pp. 150-153, 1999.
[5] J. T. Musick, and D. A. Dusek, "Irrigated corn yield response to water," Trans. ASAE, Vol. 23, pp. 92-98, 1980.
[6] R. K. Misra, and T. N. Chaudhary, "Effect of limited water input on root growth, water use, and grain yield of wheat," Field Crops Res., Vol. 10, pp. 125-134, 1985.
[7] F. M. Rhoads, and R. L. Stanley, "Response of three corn hybrids to low levels of soil moisture tension in the plow layer," Agron. J., Vol. 65, pp. 315-318, 1973.
[8] P. Fox, and J. Rockstrom, "Supplemental irrigation for dry-spell mitigation of rainfed agriculture in the Sahel. Agric," Water Manage., Vol. 61, pp. 29-50, 2003.
[9] P. R. Gajri, and S. S. Prihar, "Effect of small irrigation amounts on the yield of wheat," Agric. Water Manage., Vol. 6, pp. 31-41, 1983.
[10] R. A. Fisher, "The effects of water stress at various stages of development on yield process in wheat," pp. 169-174. In Plant response to climatic factors. Proc. Symp., Uppsala, Sweden, 15-20 Sept. 1970. UNESCO, Paris, 1970.
[11] A. D. Schneider, J. T. Musick, and D. A. Dusek, "Efficient wheat irrigation with limited water," Trans. ASAE, Vol. 12, pp. 23-26, 1969.
[12] N. T. Singh, R. Singh, P. S. Mahajan, and A. C. Vig, "Influence of supplement irrigation and presowing soil water storage on wheat," Agron. J., Vol. 71, pp. 483-486, 1979
[13] X. Y. Li, and J. D. Gong, "Effects of different ridge: furrow ratios and supplemental irrigation on crop production in ridge and furrow rainfall harvesting system with mulches," Agric. Water Manage., Vol. 54, pp. 243-254, 2002.
[14] Z. P. Shangguan, M. A. Shao, T. W. Lei, and T.L. Fan, "Runoff water management technologies for dryland agriculture on the Loess Plateau of China," Int. J. Sustainable Dev. World Ecol., Vol. 9, pp. 341-350, 2002.
[15] E. R. Perrier, and A. B. Salkini, "Supplemental irrigation in the Near East and North Africa. Kluwer Academic publisher," Boston/London, 1987.
[16] H. Siadat, "Supplemental irrigation systems in Iran," pp. 327-364. In: E. R. perrier and A. B. Salkini, supplemental irrigation in the near east north Africa, Kluwer Academic publisher, Boston, London, 1987.
[17] E. R. Perrier, and A. B. Salkini, "Supplemental irrigation in the Near East and North Africa," Netherlands: Kluwer Acad. Publ, 1991.
[18] T. Oweis, M. Pala, and J. Ryan, "Stabilizing rainfed wheat yields with supplemental irrigation in a Mediterranean-type climate," Agron. J., Vol. 90, pp.672-681, 1998
[19] H. Zhang, and T. Oweis, "Water-yield relations and optimal irrigation scheduling of wheat in the Mediterranean region," Agric. Water Manage., Vol. 38, pp. 195-211, 1999.
[20] T. Oweis, "Supplemental irrigation: An option for improved water use efficiency," pp. 115-131. In Proc. Regional Seminar on the Optimization of Irrigation in Agriculture, Amman, Jordan, pp. 21-24. 1994.
[21] K. Ward, and P. Smith, "An investigation into the shallow groundwater resources of part of Northwest Syria," pp. 29-42. In Annual Report of Farm Resource Management Program, ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria, 1994.
[22] SAS Institute, "SAS user's guide: Statistics," SAS Inst., Cary, NC, 1991.
[23] C. S. Pierre, C. J. Peterson, A. S. Ross, J. B. Ohm, M. C. Verhoeven, M. Larson, and B. Hoefer, "White wheat grain quality changes with genotype, nitrogen fertilization, and water stress," Agronomy Journal, Vol. 100, pp. 414-420, 2008.
[24] J. B. Passioura, "Physiology of grain yield in wheat growing on stored water," J. Aust. Inst. Agric. Sci., Vol. 3, pp. 117-120, 1976.
[25] H. Zhang, T. Oweis, S. Garabet, and M. Pala, "Water use efficiency and transpiration efficiency of wheat under rainfed and irrigation conditions in a Mediterranean environment," Plant Soil, Vol. 201, pp. 295-305, 1998.
[26] , J. B. Passioura, "Roots and drought resistance," Agric. Water Manage., Vol. 7, pp. 265-280, 1983.
[27] R. J. French, and T. E. Schultz, "Water use efficiency of wheat in a Mediterranean-type environment: I. The relation between yield, water use and climate," Aust. J. Agric. Res., Vol. 35, pp. 743-764, 1984.
[28] P. J. M. Cooper, P. J. Gregory, D. Tully, and H. C. Harris, "Improving water use efficiency of annual crops in the rainfed farming systems of West Asia and North Africa." Exp. Agric., Vol. 23, pp. 113-158, 1987.
[29] J. F. Angus, and A.F. Herwaarden, "Increasing water use and water use efficiency in dryland wheat," Agronomy Journal, Vol. 93, pp. 290-298, 2001.