Big Five Traits and Loneliness among Turkish Emerging Adults
Authors: Hasan Atak
Emerging adulthood, between the ages of 18 and 25, as a distinct developmental stage extending from adolescence to young adulthood. The proportions composing the five-factor model are neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. In the literature, there is any study which includes the relationship between emerging adults loneliness and personality traits. Therefore, the relationship between emerging adults loneliness and personality traits have to be investigated. This study examines the association between the Big Five personality traits, and loneliness among Turkish emerging adults. A total of 220 emerging adults completed the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and the The UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLALS). Correlation analysis showed that three Big Five personality dimensions which are Neuroticism (positively), and Extraversion and Aggreableness (negatively) are moderately correlated with emerging adults loneliness. Regression analysis shows that Extraversion, Aggreableness and Neuroticism are the most important predictors of emerging adults loneliness. Results can be discussed in the context of emerging adulthood theory.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1061774Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2642
 J J Arnett (2000) Emerging Adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55, 469-480.
 J J Arnett (2003) Conceptions of the Transition to Adulthood among Emerging Adults in American Ethnic Groups. In J.J. Arnett and N. L. Galambos (Eds), New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development: Exploring Cultural Conceptions of the Transition to Adulthood, No. 100, 2003, 63-76. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
 J J Arnett (2004) Emerging Adulthood: The Winding Road from the Late Teens through the Twenties. (First edition). New York: Oxford University Press.
 J J Arnett (2006a) Emerging Adulthood in Europe: A Response to Bynner. Journal of Youth Studies, 9, 111-123.
 C S L., Cheah; LJ Nelson (2004) The Role of Acculturation in the Emerging Adulthood of Aboriginal College Students. International Journal of Behavioral Development. 28 (6), 495-507.
 J J Arnett (2006b) Suffering, Selfish, Slackers? Myths and Reality About Emerging Adults. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 36, 23-29.
 J J Arnett (2007a) Emerging Adulthood: What Is It, and What Is It Good For?. Child Development Perspectives. 1 (2), 68-73.
 J J Arnett (2007b) Emerging Adulthood, a 21st Century Theory: A Rejoinder to Hendry and Kloep. Child Development Perspectives. 1 (2), 80-82.
 J. T., Cacioppo; Ernst, J.M., Burleson, M.H., McClintock, M.K., Malarkey, W.B., & Hawkley, L.C., et al. (2000). Lonely traits and concomitant physiological processes: The MacArthur Social Neuroscience Studies. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 35, 143154.
 J. T Cacioppo, L.C. Hawkley; Berntson, G.G., Ernst, J.M., Gibbs, A.C., Stickgold, R., & Hobson, J.A. (2002). Lonely days invade the night: Social modulation of sleep efficiency. Psychological Science, 13, 385388.
 J. T Cacioppo, L.C. Hawkley; Crawford, L.E., Ernst, J.M., Burleson, M.H., & Kowalewski, R.B., et al. (2002). Loneliness and health: Potential mechanisms. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64, 407417.
 A. Caspi; Harrington, H., Moffitt, T.E., Milne, B.J., & Poulton, R. (2006). Socially isolated children 20 years later. Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, 160, 805811.
 P., Demakakos; Nunn, S., & Nazroo, J. (2006). Loneliness, relative deprivation and life satisfaction. In J. Banks, E. Breeze, C. Lessof, &J. Nazroo (Eds.), Retirement, health and relationships of the older population in England: The 2004 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. London: Institute for Fiscal Studies.
 S. Franklin; Gustin, W., IV, Wong, N.D., Larson, M.G., Weber, M.A., Kannel, W.B., & Levy, D. (1997). Hemodynamic patterns of agerelated changes in blood pressure: The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation, 96, 308315.
 R. S. Weiss (1973). Loneliness: The experience of emotional and social isolation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
 M. E. Deniz, E. Hamarta, & Ar, R. (2005). An investigation of social skills and loneliness levels of university students with respect to their attachment styles in a sample of Turkish students. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 33 (1), 19-30.
 L. A., Peplau, & Perlman, D. (1982). Perspectives on loneliness. In L. A. Peplau & D. Perlman (Eds.), Loneliness: A sourcebook of current theory, research and therapy (pp. 1-18). New York: John Wiley.
 W. H., Jones; Rose, J., & Russell, D. (1990). Loneliness and social anxiety. In H. Leitenberg (Ed.), Handbook of social and evaluation anxiety (pp. 247-266). New York: Plenum Press.
 W. H., Jones, & B. N. Carpenter (1986). Shyness, social behavior and relationships. In W. H. Jones & R. Briggs (Eds.), A sourcebook of shyness: Research and treatment (pp. 227-238). New York: Plenum Press.
 Y. Amichai-Hamburger, & E. Ben-Artzi (2003) Loneliness and internet use Computers in Human Behavior, 19(1), 71.
 S. Caplan (2003) Preference for online social interaction: A theory of problematic internet use and psychosocial well-being CommunicationResearch, 30, 625-648.
 E.J. Moody (2001) Internet use and its relationship to loneliness CyberPsychology & Behavior, 4, 393-401.
 R.M. Shepherd, & R.J. Edelmann (2005) Reasons for internet use and social anxiety Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 949-958.
 G., Yao-Guo; S. Lin-Yan, & C. Feng-Lin (2006) A research on emotion and personality characteristics in junior high school students with internet addiction disorders Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 14, 153-155.
 J.N. Cummings, L. Sproull, & S.B. Kiesler (2002) Beyond hearing: Where real-world and online support meet Group Dynamics: Theory, Research and Practice, 6, 78-88.
 R., Kraut, S., Kiesler, B., Boneva, J.N., Cummings, V. Helgeson, & Crawford, A.M. (2002) Internet paradox revisited Journal of Social Issues, 58, 49-74.
 D. Russell, C. E. Cutrona, J. Rose, & K. Yurko, (1984). Social and emotional loneliness: An examination of Weisss typology of loneliness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 1313-1321.
 M. T. Wittenberg, & H. T. Reis (1986). Loneliness, social skills and social perception. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 12, 121-130.
 R. R., McCrea, & O.P. John, (1992). Introduction To The Five-Factor Model And Its Applications. Journal of Personality, 60, 175-215.
 PT Jr, Costa, RR, McCrae (1992a), Four ways five factors are basic. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 653-665.
 PT Jr, Costa, RR, McCrae, D. A. Dye. (1991), Facet scales for agreeableness and conscientiousness: A revision of the NEO Personality Inventory. Personality and Individual Differences, 12,887-898.
 J. M, Digman. (1989), Five robust trait dimensions: Development, stability, and utility.Journal of Personality, 57,195-214.
 K. L. Jang, W. J., Livesley & Vernon, P. A. (1996). The genetic basis of personality at different ages: A crosssectional twin study. Personalityand Individual Differences, 21, 299301.
 R. Shiner & A. Caspi. (2003). Personality Differences n Childhood And Adolescence: Measurement, Development, And Consequences. Journalof Child Psychology and Psychiatry,44, 1, 2-32.
 S. J. T. Branje, C..F. M. V. Leshout, & J. R. M. Gerrs. (2007). Big Five Personality Development In Adolescence and Adulthood. European Journal Of Personality. 21: 4562.
 E. M. Suh, E. Diener, S. Oishi & H. C. Triandis. (1998). The shifting basis of life satisfaction judgments across cultures: Emotions versus norms. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 74, 482493.
 O. P., John, & S. Srivastava, (1999). The Big Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In L. A. Pervin & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (2nd ed., pp.102138). New York: Guilford Press.
 S. G. Evinc, (2004). Maternal personality characteristics, affective state, and psychopathology in relation to childrens attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder as-nd comorbid symptoms. Unpublished Master Thesis, METU, Ankara.
 D., Russell, L. A., Peplau, & M. Ferguson. (1978). Developing a measure of loneliness. Journal of Personality Assessment, 42, 290-294.
 A. Demir, (1989). UCLA Yalnzlk leinin geerlik ve gvenirlii.Psikoloji Dergisi, 7(23), 14-18.
 J. B. Asendorf. (2002). Personality effects on personal relationships over the life span. In A. L. Vangelisti,, H. T. Reis,, & M. A. Fitzpatrick (Eds.), Stability and change in relationships (pp. 3556). Cambridge University Press.
 A. Caspi. (1998). Personality development across the life course. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development, 5th ed. (pp. 311388). New York: Wiley.
 S. J. T. Branje, M. A. G. van Aken, C. F. M. van Lieshout, J. J. J. P. Mathijssen. (2003). Personality judgments in adolescents families: The perceiver, the target, their relationship, and the family. Journal of Personality.
 A. Caspi (2000). The child is the father of the man: Personality continuities from childhood to adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 158172.
 E. Deiner & M. Diener (1995). Cross-Cultural Correlates Of Life Satisfaction And Self Esteem. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 68, 653-663.
 P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae. (1980). Influence Of Extraversion And Neuroticism On Subjective Well-Being: Happy And Unhappy People. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 668-678.