Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31103
Comparison of Indoor and Outdoor Air Quality in Children Homes at Prenatal Period and One Year Old

Authors: S. Lakestani, B. Karakas, S. Acar Vaizoglu, B. Guciz Dogan, C. Guler, B. Sekerel, A. Taner, G. Gullu


Abstract–Indoor air (VOCs) samples were collected simultaneously from variety of indoors (e.g. living rooms, baby-s rooms) and outdoor environments which were voluntarily selected from the houses in which pregnant residents live throughout Ankara. This is the first comprehensive study done in Turkey starting from prenatal period and continued till the babies had one year old. VOCs levels were measured over 76 homes. Air samples were collected in Tenax TA sorbent filled tubes with active sampling method and analyzed with Thermal Desorber and Gas Chromatography/Mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS). At the first sampling period in the baby-s rooms maximum concentration of toluene was measured about 240.77μg.m-3 and in the living rooms maximum concentration of naphthalene was 180.24μg.m-3. At the second sampling period in the baby-s rooms maximum concentration of toluene was measured about 144.97μg.m-3 and in the living rooms maximum concentration of naphthalene was 247.89μg.m-3. Concentration of TVOCs in the first period was generally higher than the second period.

Keywords: Indoor Air, Gas Chromatography, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1715


[1] H. Hellén, H. Hakola, T. Laurila, V. Hiltunen, T. Koskentalo. Aromatic hydrocarbon and methyl tert-butyl ether measurements in ambient air of Helsinki (Finland) using diffusive samplers The Science of the Total Environment 298, pp. 5-64, 2002.
[2] T. Ohura, T. Amagai, Y. Senga, M. Fusaya. Organic air pollutants inside and outside residences in Shimizu, Japan: levels, sources and risks The Science of the Total Environment, 366, pp. 485-499, 2006.
[3] K.H. Park, W.K. Jo. Personal volatile organic compound (VOC) exposure of children attending elementary schools adjacent to industrial complex Atmospheric Environment 38 pp. 1303-1312, 2004.
[4] F. Haghighat, C.S. Lee, W.S. Ghaly. Measurement of diffusion coefficients of VOCs for building materials: review and development of a calculation procedure, Indoor Air Vol. 12(2): 81-91, 2002.
[5] F. Haghighat, C.S. Lee, W.S. Ghaly. A study on VOC source and sink behavior in porous building materials - analytical model development and assessment, Indoor Air 15(3), 183-196, 2005.
[6] A.S. Claeson, M. Sandstrom, A.-L. Sunesson,. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from materials collected from buildings affected by microorganisms, J. Environ. Monit 9, 240-245, 2007.
[7] J. Nicolle, V. Desauziers, P. Mocho. Solid phase microextraction sampling for a rapid and simple on-site evaluation of volatile organic compounds emitted from building materials, J. Chromatogr. 1208(1-2), 10-15, 2008.
[8] K.H. Han, J.S. Zhang, P. Wargocki, H.N. Knudsen, B. Guo. Determination of material emission signatures by PTR-MS and their correlations with odor assessments by human subjects, Indoor Air 20(4), 341-354, 2010.
[9] C. Jia, S. Batterman, C. Godwin, S. Charles, J.Y. Chin. Sources and migration of volatile organic compounds in mixed-use buildings, Indoor Air 20(5), 357-369, 2010.
[10] K.D. Kwon, W.K. Jo, H.J. Lim, W.S. Jeong. Volatile pollutants emitted from selected liquid household products, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int 15(6), 521-526, 2008.
[11] W. Liu, J. Zhang, J.H. Hashim, J. Jalaudin, Z. Hashim, B.D. Goldstein,. Mosquito coil emissions and health implications, Environ. Health Perspect 111(12), 1454-1460, 2003.
[12] Q. Ye, Development of solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatographymass spectrometry for rapid analysis of volatile organic chemicals in mainstream cigarette smoke, J. Chromatogr 1213(2), 239- 244, 2008.
[13] H. Fromme, S. Dietrich, D. Heitmann, H. Dressel, J. Diemer, T. Schulz, R.A. Jörres, K. Berlin, W. Völkel. Indoor air contamination during a waterpipe (narghile) smoking session, Food Chem. Toxicol 47(7), 1636- 1641, 2009.
[14] E. Kabir, K.H. Kim. An investigation on hazardous and odorous pollutant emission during cooking activities, J. Hazard. Mater 188(1-3), 443-454, 2011.
[15] A. Afshari, B. Lundgren, L.E. Ekberg. Comparison of three small chamber test methods for the measurement of VOC emission rates from paint, Indoor Air Vol. 13(2), 156-165, 2003.
[16] G. Wieslander, D. Norbäck. Ocular symptoms tear film stability, nasal patency, and biomarkers in nasal lavage in indoor painters in relation to emissions from waterbased paint, Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health Vol. 83(7): 733-741, 2010.
[17] Y.M. Chang, W.H. Hu, W.B. Fang, S.S. Chen, C.T. Chang, H.W. Ching. A study on dynamic volatile organic compound emission characterization of water-based paints, J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. Vol. 61(1), 35-45, 2011.
[18] O. Wilke, O. Jann, D. Brödner. VOC- and SVOC-emissions from adhesives, floor coverings and complete floor structures, Indoor Air Vol. 14 Suppl 8: 98-107, 2004.
[19] L.K. Jensen, A. Larsen, L. M├©lhave, M.K. Hansen, B. Knudsen. Health evaluation of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from wood and wood-based materials, Arch. Environ. Health. Vol. 56(5), 419-432, 2001.
[20] L. Kirkeskov, T. Witterseh, L.W. Funch, E. Kristiansen, L. M├©lhave, M.K. Hansen, B. Knudsen. Health evaluation of volatile organic compound (VOC) emission from exotic wood products, Indoor Air Vol. 19(1), 45-57, 2009.
[21] A. Katsoyiannis, P. Leva, D. Kotzias. VOC and carbonyl emissions from carpets: a comparative study using four types of environmental chambers, J. Hazard Mater. Vol. 152(2), 669-676, 2008.
[22] S.S. Cox, J.C. Little, A.T. Hodgson. Measuring concentrations of volatile organic compounds in vinyl flooring, J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. Vol. 51(8), 1195-1201, 2001.
[23] Cox S.S., Little J.C. & Hodgson A.T. Predicting the emission rate of volatile organic compounds from vinyl flooring, Environ. Sci. Technol. Vol. 36(4), 709-714, 2002.
[24] K.W. Tham, M.S. Zuraimi, S.C. Sekhar. Emission modelling and validation of VOCs- source strengths in air-conditioned office premises, Environ. Int. Vol. 30(8), 1075-1088, 2004.
[25] M. Caselli, G. de Gennaro, M.R. Saracino, M. Tutino. Indoor contaminants from newspapers: VOCs emissions in newspaper stands, Environ. Res. Vol. 109(2), 149-157, 2009.
[26] C.W. Lee, Y.T. Dai, C.H. Chien, D.J. Hsu. Characteristics and health impacts of volatile organic compounds in photocopy centers, Environ. Res. 100(2), 139-149, 2006.
[27] C.J. Weschler. Chemistry in indoor environments: 20 years of research. Indoor Air 2011, 21, 205-218.
[28] L. Wang, K.E. Pinkerton. Air pollutant effects on fetal and early postnatal development. Birth Defects Res. Part C, Embryo Today: Rev. 81, 144-154, 2007.
[29] A. Esplugues, F. Ballester, M. Estarlich, S. Llop, V.F. Leonarte, E. Mantilla, C. I├▒iguez. Indoor and outdoor air concentrations of BTEX and determinants in a cohort of One-Year old children in valencia, spain. Science Of The Total Environment. 409, 63-69, 2010.
[30] European Commission (2009) Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2008 on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe. Available online at:
[31] J.L. Adgate, T.R. Church, A.D. Ryan, G. Ramachandran, A.L. Fredrickson, T.H. Stock, et al. Outdoor, indoor, and personal exposure to VOCs in children. Environ Health Perspect 112, 1386-92, 2004.
[32] A.L. Clobes, G.P. Ananth, A.L. Hood, J.A. Schroeder, K.A. Lee. (1992) Human activities as sources of volatile organic compounds in residential environments, Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 641, 79-86 doi:10.1111/j.1749- 6632.1992.tb16534.x.
[33] A.T. Hodgson, J.D. Wooley. Assessment of Indoor Concentrations, Indoor Sources and Source Emissions of Selected Volatile Organic Compounds. Final Report, Contract No. A933063, California Air Resources Board, Research Division, 179 p, 1991.