Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30011
Air Quality in Sports Venues with Distinct Characteristics

Authors: C. A. Alves, A. I. Calvo, A. Castro, R. Fraile, M. Evtyugina, E. F. Bate-Epey

Abstract:

In July 2012, an indoor/outdoor monitoring programme was undertaken in two university sports facilities: a fronton and a gymnasium. Comfort parameters (temperature, relative humidity, CO and CO2) and total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were continuously monitored. Concentrations of NO2, carbonyl compounds and individual VOCs were obtained. Low volume samplers were used to collect particulate matter (PM10). The minimum ventilation rates stipulated for acceptable indoor air quality were observed in both sports facilities. It was found that cleaning activities may have a large influence on the VOC levels. Acrolein was one of the most abundant carbonyl compounds, showing concentrations above the recommended limit. Formaldehyde was detected at levels lower than those commonly reported for other indoor environments. The PM10 concentrations obtained during the occupancy periods ranged between 38 and 43μgm-3 in the fronton and from 154 to 198μgm-3 in the gymnasium.

Keywords: Air exchange rates, carbonyls, gymnasiums, indoor air quality, PM10, VOCs.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1328584

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF

References:


[1] J. M. Daisey, W.J. Angell, M.G. Apte, "Indoor air quality, ventilation and health symptoms in schools: an analysis of existing information", Indoor Air, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 53-64, Mar. 2003.
[2] P. Molnar, T. Bellander, G. Sallsten, J. Boman, "Indoor and outdoor concentrations of PM2.5 trace elements at homes, preschools and schools in Stockholm, Sweden", J. Environ. Monitor., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 348-357, 2007.
[3] S. Oeder, S. Dietrich, I. Weichenmeier, W. Schober, G. Pusch, R.A. Jörres, R. Schierl, D. Nowak, H. Fromme, H. Behrendt, J.T.M. Buters, "Toxicity and elemental composition of particulate matter from outdoor and indoor air of elementary schools in Munich, Germany", Indoor Air, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 148-158, Apr. 2012.
[4] P. N. Pegas, C.A. Alves, M.G. Evtyugina, T. Nunes, M. Cerqueira, M. Franchi, C.A. Pio, S.M. Almeida, S.C. Verde, M.C. Freitas, "Seasonal evaluation of outdoor/indoor air quality in primary schools in Lisbon", J. Environ. Monitor., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 657-667, Mar. 2011.
[5] P. N. Pegas, T. Nunes, C.A. Alves, J.R. Silva, S.L.A. Vieira, A. Caseiro, C.A. Pio, "Indoor and outdoor characterisation of organic and inorganic compounds in city centre and suburban elementary schools of Aveiro, Portugal", Atmos. Environ., vol. 55, pp. 80-89, Aug. 2012.
[6] H. Pekey, D. Arslanbas, "The Relationship Between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal VOC Concentrations in Homes, Offices and Schools in the Metropolitan Region of Kocaeli, Turkey", Water Air Soil Pollut., vol. 191, no. 1-4, pp. 113-129, Jun. 2008.
[7] M. Stranger, S.S. Potgieter-Vermaak, R. Van Grieken, "Characterization of indoor air quality in primary schools in Antwerp, Belgium", Indoor Air, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 454-463, Dec. 2008.
[8] P. Blondeau, V. Iordache, O. Poupard, D. Genin, F. Allard, "Relationship between outdoor and indoor air quality in eight French schools", Indoor Air, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 2-12, Jan. 2005.
[9] C. He, L. Morawska, J. Hitchins, D. Gilbert, "Contribution from indoor sources to particle number and mass concentrations in residential houses", Atmos. Environ., vol. 38, no. 21, pp. 3405-3415, Jul 2004.
[10] J. S. Park, K. Ikeda, "Variations of formaldehyde and VOC levels during 3 years in new and older homes", Indoor Air, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 129- 135, Apr. 2006.
[11] H. J. Salonen, A.-L. Pasanen, S.K. Lappalainen, H.M. Riuttala, T.M. Tuomi, P.O. Pasanen, B.C. Bäck, K.E. Reijula, "Airborne Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds, Formaldehyde and Ammonia in Finnish Office Buildings with Suspected Indoor Air Problems", J. Occup. Environ. Hyg., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 200-209, 2009.
[12] R. A. Wood, M. Burchett, R. Alquezar, R.L. Orwell, J. Tarran, F. Torpy, "The potted-plant microcosm substantially reduces indoor air VOC pollution: I. Office Field-Study", Water Air Soil Pollut., vol. 175, no. 1- 4, pp. 163-180, Sep. 2006.
[13] M. Braniš, J. Šafránek, "Characterization of coarse particulate matter in school gyms", Environ. Res., vol. 111, no. 4, pp. 485-491, May 2011.
[14] M. Braniš, J. Šafránek, A. Hytychová, "Exposure of children to airborne particulate matter of different size fractions during indoor physical education at school", Build. Environ., vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 1246-1252, Jun. 2009.
[15] M. Brani┼í, J. ┼áafr├ínek, A. Hytychov├í, "Indoor and outdoor sources of size-resolved mass concentration of particulate matter in a school gymÔÇöimplications for exposure of exercising children", Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 598-609, May 2011.
[16] P. Bruno, M. Caselli, G. De Gennaro, S. Iacobellis, M. Tutino, "Monitoring of volatile organic compounds in non-residential indoor environments", Indoor Air, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 250-256, Jun. 2008.
[17] G. Buonanno, F.C. Fuoco, S. Marini, L. Stabile, "Particle Resuspension in School Gyms during Physical Activities", Aerosol Air Qual. Res., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 803-813, Oct. 2012.
[18] P.N. Pegas, M.G. Evtyugina, C.A. Alves, T. Nunes, M. Cerqueira, M. Franchi, C. Pio, S.M. Almeida, M.d.C. Freitas, "Outdoor/indoor air quality in primary schools in Lisbon: a preliminary study", Quím. Nova, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 1145-1149, 2010.
[19] M. Griffiths, M. Eftekhari, "Control of CO2 in a naturally ventilated classroom", Energ. Buildings, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 556-560, 2008.
[20] H.M. Binkley, J. Beckett, D.J. Casa, D.M. Kleiner, P.E. Plummer, "National athletic trainers- association position statement: Exertional heat illnesses", J. Athl. Training, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 329-343, Jul.-Sep. 2002.
[21] J.A. Grubenhoff, K. du Ford, G.E. Roosevelt, "Heat-Related Illness", Clin. Pediatr. Emerge. Med., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 59-64, Mar. 2007.
[22] S. Racinais, M. Mohr, M. Buchheit, S.C. Voss, N. Gaoua, J. Grantham, L. Nybo, "Individual responses to short-term heat acclimatisation as predictors of football performance in a hot, dry environment", Br. J. Sports Med., vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 810-815, Sep. 2012.
[23] WHO, WHO guidelines for indoor air quality: selected pollutants, in, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2010.
[24] C.A. Alves, S.D.G. Aciole, "Formaldeído em escolas: uma revisão", Quím. Nova, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 2025-2039, 2012.
[25] S.C. Lee, W.-M. Li, L. Yin Chan, "Indoor air quality at restaurants with different styles of cooking in metropolitan Hong Kong", Sci. Total Environ., vol. 279, no. 1-3, pp. 181-193, Nov. 2001.
[26] G. Pilidis, S. Karakitsios, P. Kassomenos, E. Kazos, C. Stalikas, "Measurements of benzene and formaldehyde in a medium sized urban environment. Indoor/outdoor health risk implications on special population groups", Environ. Monit. Assess, vol. 150, no. 1-4, pp. 285- 294, Mar. 2009.
[27] R. Golden, "Identifying an indoor air exposure limit for formaldehyde considering both irritation and cancer hazards", Crit Rev Toxicol., vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 672-721, Sep. 2011.
[28] T. Salthammer, S. Mentese, R. Marutzky, "Formaldehyde in the indoor environment", Chem. Rev., vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 2536-2572, Apr. 2010.
[29] V.Y. Seaman, D.H. Bennett, T.M. Cahill, "Origin, Occurrence, and Source Emission Rate of Acrolein in Residential Indoor Air", Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 41, no. 20, pp. 6940-6946, Oct. 2007.
[30] OEHHA, Air Toxics "Hot Spots" Program Risk Assessment Guidelines. Part III, in: Technical Support Document for the Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, 2001.
[31]
[S. Weinbruch, T. Dirsch, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, K. Kandler, "Dust exposure in indoor climbing halls", J. Environ. Monit., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 648-654, 2008.
[32] D. Majumdar, S.P.M. William, "Chalk dustfall during classroom teaching: particle size distribution and morphological characteristics", Environ. Monit. Assess., vol. 148, no. 1-4, pp. 343-335, Jan. 2009.
[33] S. Weinbruch, T. Dirsch, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, G. Heimburger, F. Hohenwarter, "Reducing dust exposure in indoor climbing gyms", J. Environ. Monit., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 2114-2120, Aug. 2012.