Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31824
Compost quality Management by Adding Sulfuric Acid and Alkaline Wastewater of Paper Mill as two Amendments

Authors: Hamid Reza Alipour, Ali Mohammadi Torkashvand


In composting process, N high-organic wastes loss the great part of its nitrogen as ammonia; therefore, using compost amendments can promote the quality of compost due to the decrease in ammonia volatilization. With regard to the effect of pH on composting, microorganisms- activity and ammonia volatilization, sulfuric acid and alkaline wastewater of paper mill (as liming agent with Ca and Mg ions) were used as compost amendments. Study results indicated that these amendments are suitable for reclamation of compost quality properties. These held nitrogen in compost caused to reduce C/N ratio. Both amendments had a significant effect on total nitrogen, but it should be used sulfuric acid in fewer amounts (20 ml/kg fresh organic wastes); and the more amounts of acid is not proposed.

Keywords: Compost, Paper mill wastewater, sulfuric acid, Ammonia Volatilization.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1706


[1] Y.K. Jeong and J. S. Kim. "A new method for conservation of nitrogen in aerobic composting processes". Bioresour. Technology, no. 79, pp. 129-133. 2001.
[2] M.S. Switzenbaum, C. Holden, H. Soares and G. A. Kuter. "Effect of amendments on nitrogen conservation in wastewater biosolid composting". Compost Sci. Utilization, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 35-42, 1994.
[3] N. Morisaki, C. G. Phae, K. Nakasaki, M. Shoda and H. Kubota. "Nitrogen transformation during thermophilic composting". J. Ferment. Bioeng., no. 67, pp. 57-61, 1989.
[4] Y. Eklind, and H. Kirchmann. "Composting and storage of organic household waste with different litter amendments". II. Nitrogen turnover and losses. Bioresour. Technol., vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 125-133, 2000.
[5] E. Witter, and J. Lopez-Real., "Nitrogen losses during the composting of sewage sludge, and the effectiveness of clay soil, zeolite, and compost in adsorbing the volatilized ammonia". Biol. Wastes, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 279-294. 1988.
[6] R.C. Hansen, H.M. Keener, H.A.J. Hoitink. "Poultry manure composting: Design guidelines for ammonia". ASAE paper, No. 89- 4075. ASAE, St. Joseph, MI. 10p. 1989.
[7] M.T. Baca, F. Fornasier, M. De Nobili. "Mineralization and humification pathways in two composting process applied to cotton wastes". J. Ferment. Bioeng. vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 179-184, 1992.
[8] N. Brink, "Composting of food waste with straw and other carbon sources for nitrogen catching". Acta. Agric. Scandinavica-Section B Soil Plant Sci. vol. 45, pp. 118-123, 1995.
[9] S. Mahimairaja, N.S. Bolan, M.J. Hedley, A.N. "Macgregor. Losses and transformation of nitrogen during composting of poultry manure with different amendments: an incubation experiment". Bioresour. Technol. Vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 265-273, 1994.
[10] Y. Liang, J. J. Leonard, J. J. R. Feddes and W. B. McGill. "Influence of carbon and buffer amendment on ammonia volatilization in composting". Bioresour. Technol., vol. 97, pp. 748-761. 2006.
[11] S. Subair, J. W. Fyles and I. P. O,Halloran. "Ammonia volatilization from liquid hog manure amended with paper products in the laboratory". J. Environ. Qual. Vol. 28, pp. 202-207. 1999.
[12] M. Meyer, and H. Sticher. "The significance of straw content for the retention of nitrogen during the composting of cattle manure". Z. Pflanzenernaehr. Bodenk no. 46, pp. 199-206. 1983.
[13] R. Singh and Pradhan, K. "Determination of nitrogen and protein by Kjeldahl method. In: Forage Evaluation Science". Pvt. Publishers Ltd., New Delhi, p. 23. 1981.
[14] J.A. Walkey and J.A. Black. "Estimation of organic carbon by the chromic acid titration method". Soil Sci. vol. 37, pp. 29-31. 1934
[15] P.F. "Storm. Effect of temperature on bacterial species diversity in thermophilic solid-waste composting". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. Vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 899-905. 1985.
[16] B. Xi, G. Zhang and H. Liu. "Process kinetics of inoculation composting of municipal solid waste". J. Hazard. Mat. B124, pp. 165-172. 2005.
[17] J.R. Freney, J. R. Simpson and O. T. Denmead. "Volatilization of ammonia. In: Freney, J. R., J. R. Simpson (Eds.), Gaseous Loss of Nitrogen from Plant-Soil Systems". Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Hingham, MA, pp. 1-32. 1983.
[18] K. Nakasaki, H. Yaguchi, Y. Sasaki and H. Kubota. "Effects of pH control on composting of garbage". Waste Manag. Res., vol. 11, pp. 117-125. 1993.
[19] D.S. Carey, H. M. Keener and D. L. Elwell. "The effect of ammonium sulfate addition to partially to composted poultry manure". ASAE paper. No. 98-4099. St. Joseph, MI. 20p. 1998.
[20] K. Ekinci, H. M. Keener and D. L. Elwell. "Composting short paper fiber with broiler litter and additives: I. Effect of initial pH and carbon/nitrogen ratio on ammonia emission". Composting Sci. Utiliz. Vol. 8, pp. 160-172. 2000.
[21] M. Kithom, J. W. Paul and A. A. Bomke. "Reducing nitrogen losses during simulated composting of poultry manure using absorbents or chemical amendments". J. Environ. Qual. 28: 194-201.1999.
[22] E. Witter and H. Kirchmann. "Effects of addition of calcium and magnesium salts on ammonia volatilization during manure composting". Plant and Soil, vol. 115, pp. 53-58. 1989.
[23] K.N. Ohliger, T. M. Young and E. D. Schroeder. "Kinetics effects on preferential struvite accumulation in wastewater". J. Environ. Engineering ASCE, vol. 125, no. 8, pp. 730-737. 1999.