Mechanisms of Organic Contaminants Uptake and Degradation in Plants
As a result of urbanization, the unpredictable growth of industry and transport, production of chemicals, military activities, etc. the concentration of anthropogenic toxicants spread in nature exceeds all the permissible standards. Most dangerous among these contaminants are organic compounds having great persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity along with our awareness of their prominent occurrence in the environment and food chain. Among natural ecological tools, plants still occupying above 40% of the world land, until recently, were considered as organisms having only a limited ecological potential, accumulating in plant biomass and partially volatilizing contaminants of different structure. However, analysis of experimental data of the last two decades revealed the essential role of plants in environment remediation due to ability to carry out intracellular degradation processes leading to partial or complete decomposition of carbon skeleton of different structure contaminants. Though, phytoremediation technologies still are in research and development, their various applications have been successfully used. The paper aims to analyze mechanisms of organic contaminants uptake and detoxification in plants, being the less studied issue in evaluation and exploration of plants potential for environment remediation.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1060096Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2805
 Graham C, Ramsden JJ (2008) Introduction to global warming. Complexity and Security. IOS press, 147-184.
 Tkhelidze P (1969) Oxidative transformation of benzene and toluene in vine grapes (in Russian). Bull Georg Acad Sci 56: 697- 700.
 Kvesitadze G, Khatisashvili G, Sadunishvili T, Ramsden JJ (2006) Mechanisms of detoxification: the basis of phytoremediation. Berlin Heidelberg, Springer, 262p.
 Schönherr J, Bukovac MJ (1972) Penetration of stomata by liquids. Dependence on surface tension, wettability, and stomatal morphology. Plant Physiol 49: 813-823.
 Ugrekhelidze D, Durmishidze S (1980) The biosphere chemical pollution and plant (in Georgian). Metsniereba, Tbilisi.
 Sandermann H (1994) Higher plant metabolism of xenobiotics: the "green liver" concept. Pharmacogenetics 4: 225-241
 Sharma MP, Vanden Born WH (1970) Foliar penetration of picloram and 2,4-D in aspen and balsam poplar. Weed Sci 18: 57- 65.
 Ugrekhelidze D (1976) Metabolism of exogenous alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons in plants (in Russian). Metsnieraba, Tbilisi
 Korte F, Kvesitadze G, Ugrekhelidze D, Gordeziani M, Khatisashvili G, Buadze O, Zaalishvili G, Coulston F (2000) Review: Organic toxicants and plants. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 47: 1-26.
 Ugrekhelidze D, Korte F, Kvesitadze G (1997) Uptake and transformation of benzene and toluene by plant leaves. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 37: 24-28.
 Martinova E (1993) An ATP-dependent glutathione-S-conjugate "export" pump in the vacuolar membrane of plants. Nature 364: 247-249.
 Coleman JOD, Mechteld MA, Kalff B, Davies TGE (1997) Detoxification of xenobiotics in plants: chemical modification and vacuolar compartmentalization. Trends Plant Sci 2: 144-151
 Sandermann H (1987) Pestizid-R├╝ckst├ñnde in Nahrungspflanzen. Die Rolle des pflanzlichen Metabolismus. Naturwissenschaften 74: 573-578.
 Eckardt NA (2001) Move it on out with MATEs. Plant Cell 13: 1477-1480.
 Betsiashvili M., Sadunishvili T., Amashukeli N., Tsulukidze N., Shapovalova N., Dzamukashvili N., Nutsubidze N. Effect of aromatic hydrocarbons on main metabolic and energetic enzymes in maize, ryegrass and kidney bean seedlings. Bull. Georgian Acad. Sci, 2004, vol. 170, No 1, 172-174.
 Chrikishvili D, Sadunishvili T, Zaalishvili G (2006) Benzoic acid transformation via conjugation with peptides and final fate of conjugates in higher plants. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 64, 3, 390-399.
 Robineau T, Batard Y, Nedelkina S, Cabello-Hurtado F, LeRet M, Sorokine O, Didierjean L, Werck-Reichhart D (1998) The chemically inducible plant cytochrome P450 CYP76B1 actively metabolizes phenylureas and other xenobiotics. Plant Physiol 118: 1049-1056
 Hansikova H, Frei E, Anzenbacher P, Stiborova M (1994) Isolation of plant cytochrome P450 and NADPH:cytochrome P450- reductase from tulip bulbs (Tulipa fosteriana). Gen Physiol Biophys, 13: 149-169
 Schuler MA (1996) Plant cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. Crit Rev Plant Sci 15: 235-284.
 Morant M, Bak S, Moller BL, Werck-Reichhart D (2003) Plant cytochromes P450: tools for pharmacology, plant protection and phytoremediation. Curr Opin Biotechnol 2: 151-162.
 Fonné-Pfister R, Kreuz K (1990) Ring-methyl hydroxylation of chlortoluron by an inducible cytochrome P450-dependent enzyme from maize. Phytochemistry 9: 2793-2804.
 Mougin C, Cabanne F, Canivenc M-C, Scalla R (1990) Hydroxylation and N-demethylation of chlortoluron by wheat microsomal enzymes. Plant Sci 66: 195-203.
 Didierjean L, Gondet L, Perkins R, Lau S-MC, Schaller H, O'Keefe DP, Werck-Reichhart D (2002) Engineering herbicide metabolism in tobacco and Arabidopsis with CYP76B1, a cytochrome P450 enzyme from Jerusalem artichoke. Plant Physiol 130: 179-189.
 Stiborova M, Anzenbacher P (1991) What are the principal enzymes oxidizing the xenobiotics in plants: cytochrome P-450 or peroxidase? Gen Physiol 10: 209-216.
 Shinohara A, Kamataki T, Ichimura Y, Opochi H, Okuda K, Kato R (1984) Drug oxidation activities of horse-redish peroxidase, myoglobin and cytochrome P-450cam reconstituted with synthetic hemes. Jap J Pharmacol 45: 107-114.
 Wilson L. Williamson T. Gronowski J, Gentile GI, Gentile JM (1994) Characterization of 4-nitro-o-phenylendiamine activities by plant systems. Mutation Res 307: 185-193.
 Laurent FMG (1994) Chloroaniline peroxidation by soybean peroxidases. Pestic Sci 40: 25- 30.
 Adamia G, Ghoghoberidze M, Graves D, Khatisashvili G, Kvesitadze G, Lomidze E, Ugrekhelidze D, Zaalishvili G (2006) Absorption, distribution and transformation of TNT in higher plants. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 64, 136-145.
 S├ínches-Ferrer A, Rodr├¡gez-L├│pez JN, Garc├¡a-C├ínovas F, Garc├¡a- Carmona F (1994) Tyrosinase: a comprehensive review of its mechanism. Biochim Biophys Acta 1247: 1-11.
 Rodr├¡gez-L├│pez JN, Tudela J, Var├│n R, Fenoll LG, Garc├¡a- Carmona F, Garc├¡a-C├ínovas F (1992) Analysis of a kinetic model for melanin biosynthesis pathway. J Biol Chem 267: 3801-3810.
 Guillén F, Mart├¢nez MJ, Mu├▒oz C, Mart├¢nez AT (1997) Quinone redox cycling in the ligninolytic fungus Pleurotus eryngii leading to extracellular production of superoxide anion radical. Arch Biochem Biophys 339: 190-199.
 Guillén F, G├│mez-Toribio V, Mart├¢nez MJ, Mart├¢nez AT (2000) Production of hydroxyl radical by the synergistic action of fungal laccase and aryl alcohol oxidase. Arch Biochem Biophys 382: 142- 147.
 Ugrekhelidze D, Phiriashvili V, Mithaishvili T (1986) Uptake of salicylic acid and aniline by pea roots (in Russian). Fiziol Rast (Moscow) 33: 165-170.
 Colombo JC, Cabello MN, Arambarri AM (1996) Biodegradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons by natural soil microflora and pure culture of imperfect and ligninolytic fungi. Environ Pollut 94: 355-362.
 Niku-Paavola ML, Viikari L (2000) Enzymatic oxidation of alkenes. J Mol Cat 10: 435-444.
 Collins PJ, Dobson ADW (1997) Regulation of laccase gene transcription in Trametes versicolor. Appl Environ Microbiol 63: 3444-3450.
 Johannes C, Majcherczyk A (2000) Natural mediators in the oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by laccase mediator systems. Appl Environ Microbiol 66: 524-528.
 Durmishidze S, Ugrekhelidze D (1968) Absorption and conversion of butane by higher plants (in Russian). Dokladi Akademii Nauk SSSR 182: 214-216
 Durmishidze S, Ugrekhelidze D (1968). Oxidation of ethane, propane and pentane by higher plants (in Russian). Bull Georg Acad Sci 50: 661-666
 Cassagne C, Lessire R (1975) Studies on alkane biosynthesis in epidermis of Allium porrum L. leaves. 4. Wax movement into and out of the epidermal cells. Plant Sci Lett S5: 261-266
 Durmishidze S, Ugrekhelidze D, Djikiya A (1974) Absorption and transformation of benzene by higher plants (in Russian). Fiziologiya i Biochimiya Kulturnikh Rastenii 6: 217-221.
 Durmishidze S, Ugrekhelidze D, Djikiya A (1974) Absorption and transformation of toluene by higher plants (in Russian). Appl Biochem Microbiol 10: 673-676.
 Jansen EF, Olson AC (1969) Metabolism of carbon-14-labelled benzene and toluene in avocado fruit. Plant Physiol 44: 786-791.
 Mithaishvili T, Scalla R, Ugrekhelidze D, Tsereteli B, Sadunishvili T, Kvesitadze G (2005) Transformation of aromatic compounds in plants grown in aseptic conditions. Z Naturforsch, 60, 97-102.
 Ugrekhelidze D, Kavtaradze L (1970) The question of metabolism of ╬▒-naphthol in higher plants (in Russian). Bull Georg Acad Sci 57: 465-469.
 Durmishidze S, Ugrekhelidze D, Djikiya A, Tsevelidze D (1969) The intermediate products of enzymatic oxidation of benzene and phenol (in Russian). Dokladi Akademii Nauk SSSR 184: 466-469
 Durmishidze S, Djikiya A, Lomidze E (1979) Uptake and transformation of benzidine by plants in sterile conditions (in Russian). Dokladi Akademii Nauk SSSR 247: 244-247.
 Tateoka TN (1970) Studies on the catabolic pathway of protocatechuic acid in mung bean seedlings. Bot Mag (Tokyo) 83: 49-54.
 Hawf LR, Behrens R (1974) Selectivity factors in the response of plants to 2,4-D. Weed Sci 22: 245-249.
 Buadze O, Sadunishvili T, Kvesitadze G (1998) The effect of 1,2- benzanthracene and 3,4-benzpyrene on the ultrastructure on maize cells. Int Biodeterior Biodergad 41: 119-125.
 Zaalishvili G, Lomidze E, Buadze O, Sadunishvili T, Tkhelidze P, Kvesitadze G (2000) Electron microscopic investigation of benzidine effect on maize root tip cell ultrastructure, DNA synthesis and calcium homeostasis. Int Biodeterior Biodergad 46: 133-140.
 Sargent JA, Blackman GE (1972) Studies on foliar penetration. 9. Patterns of penetration of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid into the leaves of different species. J Exp Bot 23: 830-839.
 Li ZS, Szczypka M, Lu YP, Thiele DJ, Rea PA (1996) The yeast cadmum factor protein (YCF1) is a vacuolar glutathione Sconjugate pump. J Biol Chem 271: 6509-6517.
 Lu YP, Li ZS, Rea PA (1997) AtMPR1 gene of Arabidopsis encodes a glutathione S-conjugate pump: isolation and functional definition of a plant ATP-binding cassette transporter gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 8243-8248.
 Song WY, Sohn EJ, Martinoia E, Lee YJ, Yang Y-Y, Jasinski M, Forestier C, Hwang I, Lee Y (2003) Engineering tolerance and accumulation of lead and cadmium in transgenic plants. Nat Biotechnol 21: 914-919.
 Peuke AD, Kopriva S, Rennenberg H (2004) Phytoremediation with the help of transgenic trees. In: Phytoremediation: environmental and molecular biological aspects. OECD workshop, Hungary, Abstr, p 33Phytoremediation: environmental and molecular biological aspects. OECD workshop, Hungary, Abstr, p 27.
 Ohkawa H, Tsujii H, Ohkawa Y (1999) The use of cytochrome P450 genes to introduce herbicide tolerance in crops: a review. Pestic Sci 55: 867- 874.
 Hannink N, Rosser SJ, French CE, Basran A, Murray JA, Nicklin S, Bruce NC (2001) Phytodetoxification of TNT by transgenic plants expressing a bacterial nitroreductase. Nat Biotechnol 19: 1168-1172.
 Hannink N, Rosser SJ, Bruce NC (2002) Phytoremediaition of explosives. Crit Rev Plant Sci 21: 511-538
 Tsao DT (2003) Phytoremediation. Advances in biochemical engineering and biotechnology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York.
 Macek T, Mackov├í M, Pavl├¡kov├í D, Sz├íkov├í J, Truska M, Singh- Cundy A, Kotraba P, Yancey N, Scouten WH (2002) Accumulation of cadmium by transgenic tobacco. Acta Biotechnologica 22: 101-106 .