Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 31584
Extractability of Heavy Metals in Green Liquor Dregs using Artificial Sweat and Gastric Fluids
Abstract:In an assessment of the extractability of metals in green liquor dregs from the chemical recovery circuit of semichemical pulp mill, extractable concentrations of heavy metals in artificial gastric fluid were between 10 (Ni) and 717 (Zn) times higher than those in artificial sweat fluid. Only Al (6.7 mg/kg; d.w.), Ni (1.2 mg/kg; d.w.) and Zn (1.8 mg/kg; d.w.) showed extractability in the artificial sweat fluid, whereas Al (730 mg/kg; d.w.), Ba (770 mg/kg; d.w.) and Zn (1290 mg/kg; d.w.) showed clear extractability in the artificial gastric fluid. As certain heavy metals were clearly soluble in the artificial gastric fluid, the careful handling of this residue is recommended in order to prevent the penetration of green liquor dregs across the human gastrointestinal tract.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1059996Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1536
 T.M. Grace, and H. Tran, "The effect of dead load chemicals in the kraft pulping and recovery system," Tappi J., vol. 8, pp. 18-24, 2009.
 V. Suhonen, "New recycled-fiber technology to increase production capacity of fluting at Stora Enso's Heinola Mill," Fiber & Paper, vol. 5, pp. 33-35, 2003.
 N. Jemaa, R. Thompson, R. Paleologou, and R.M. Berry, "Non-process elements in the kraft cycle, Part I: source, levels and process effects," Pulp Pap. Canada, vol. 100, pp. 47-51, 1999.
 Y. Chen, N. Shah, F. Huggins, and G. Huffman, "Transmission electron microscopy investigations of ultrafine coal fly ash particles," Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 39, pp. 1144-1151, 2005.
 S.G. Lu, Y.Y. Chen, H.D. Shan, and S.Q. Bai, "Mineralogy and heavy metal leachability of magnetic fractions separated from some Chinese coal fly ashes," J. Hazard. Mater., vol. 169, pp. 246-255, 2009.
 S.B. Horowitz, and B.L. Finley, "Using human sweat to extract chromium from chromite ore processing residue: Applications to setting health-based cleanup levels," J. Toxicol. Env. Heal. A., vol. 40, pp. 585- 599, 1993.
 P.S. Nico, M.W. Ruby, Y.W. Lowney, and S.E. Holm, "Chemical speciation and bioaccessibility of arsenic and chromium in chromate copper arsenate-treated wood and soils," Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 40, pp. 402-408, 2006.
 X-s. Wang, Y. Qin, and Y-k. Chen, "Leaching characteristics of arsenic and heavy metals in urban roadside soils using a simple bioavailability extraction test," Environ. Monit. Assess., vol. 129, pp. 221-226, 2007.
 J. Wragg, and M.R. Cave, "In-vitro methods for the measurement of the oral bioaccessibility of selected metals and metalloids in soils: A critical review", British Geological Survey R&D Technical Report P5- 062/TR/01, Environmental Agency, Bristol, UK, pp. 9-10, 2002.
 J. Twining. P. McGlinn, E. Loi, K. Smith, and R. Gieré, "Risk ranking of bioaccessible metals from fly ash dissolved in simulated lung and gut fluids", Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 39, pp. 7749-7756, 2005.
 R. Pöykiö, H. Rönkköm├ñki, H. Nurmesniemi, E. Merisalu, P. Per├ñm├ñki, and R.L. Keiski, "Extractability of heavy metals in fly ash by artificial sweat and gastric fluids (Conference Proceedings - Accepted for publication)", The 2nd International Conference on "Hazardous and Industrial Waste Management", Chania, Greece, in October 5th - 8th, 2010.
 K. Manskinen, H. Nurmesniemi, and R. Pöykiö, "Total and extractable non-process elements in green liquor dregs from the chemical recovery circuit of a semi-chemical pulp mill," Chem. Eng. J., submitted for publication.
 R. Pöykiö, H. Nurmesniemi, and R.L. Keiski, "Evaluating the concentrations of partitioned heavy metals in fly ash from a medium-size (32 MW) municipal district heating plant with respect to the new Finnish limit values," Int. J. Environ. Waste Manage., vol. 2, pp. 610-624, 2008.
 C. Yafa, and J.G. Farmer, "A comparative study of acid-extractable and total digestion method for the determination of inorganic elements in peat material by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry," Anal. Chim. Acta, vol. 557, pp. 296-303, 2006.
 I. Milośev, and T. Kosec, "Metal ion release and surface composition of the Cu-18Ni-20Zn nickel-silver during 30 days immersion in artificial sweat", Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 254, pp. 644-652, 2007.
 J-Y. Kim, K-W. Kim, J-U. Lee, J-S. Lee, and J. Cook, "Assessment of As and heavy metal contamination in the vicinity of Duckum Au-Ag mine, Korea", Environ. Geochem. Hlth., vol. 24, pp. 213-225, 2002.
 K. Taylor, and B.M. McGuffie, "Investigation of non-process element chemistry at Elk Falls mill - green liquor clarifier and lime cycle," Pulp Pap. Canada, vol. 108, pp. 27-32, 2007.
 F.M. Martins, J. M. Martins, L. C. Ferracin, and C.J da Cunha, "Mineral phases of green liquor dregs, slaker grits, lime mud and wood ash of a Kraft pulp and paper mill," J. Hazard. Mater., vol. 147, pp. 610-617, 2007.
 M. Toikka, "Minimization and utilization of green liquor dregs and ashes in pulp and paper," in Regional Environmental Publication no. 82, Southeast Finland Regional Environment Centre, Ed. Oy Edita Ab, Helsinki, Finland, pp. 16-23, 1998.
 U.M.Mroueh, and M. Wahlström, "By-products and recycled materials in earth construction in Finland - an assessment of applicability," Resour. Conserv. Recy., vol. 35, pp. 117-129, 2002.
 D. Voutsa, and C. Samara, "Labile and bioaccessible fractions of heavy metals in the airborne particulate matter from urban and industrial areas," Atmos. Environ., vol. 36, pp. 3583-3590, 2002.
 B. Pranaityt─ù, A. Padarauskas, and E. Naujalis, "Determination of metals in textiles by ICP-MS following extraction with synthetic gastric juice," Chemija, Vol. 19, pp, 43-47, 2008.
 H. Nakashima, N. Miyano, and T. Takatuka, "Elution of metals with artificial sweat/saliva from inorganic antimicrobials/processed cloths and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of cloths", J. Health Sci., vol. 54, pp. 390-399, 2008.