Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30172
Brain Drain of Doctors; Causes and Consequences in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Wajid Tahir, Rubina Kauser, Majid Ali Tahir

Abstract:

Pakistani doctors (MBBS) are emigrating towards developed countries for professional adjustments. This study aims to highlight causes and consequences of doctors- brain drain from Pakistan. Primary data was collected from Mayo Hospital, Lahore by interviewing doctors (n=100) through systematic random sampling technique. It found that various socio-economic and political conditions are working as push and pull factors for brain drain of doctors in Pakistan. Majority of doctors (83%) declared poor remunerations and professional infrastructure of health department as push factor of doctors- brain drain. 81% claimed that continuous instability in political situation and threats of terrorism are responsible for emigration of doctors. 84% respondents considered fewer opportunities of further studies responsible for their emigration. Brain drain of doctors is affecting health sector-s policies / programs, standard doctor-patient ratios and quality of health services badly.

Keywords: Brain Drain, Emigration, Remuneration, Politicalinstability, MBBS doctors

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1328498

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4087

References:


[1] A. Abid,"Brain drain from Pakistan to hurt long-term growth", The Daily News, Pakistan (12 Aug, 2008), Retrieved from; http://www.defence.pk/forums/ economy -development/13447-braindrain- pakistan -hurt-long-term-growth.html on 13.01. 2011 at 9:10 pm. 2004.
[2] A. Hagopian, A. Ofosu and A. Fatusi, "The flight of physicians from West Africa: Views of African physicians and implications for policy", Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 61, 2005, pp 1750-1760.
[3] A. O. Arah, U. C. Ogbu and E. C. Okeke "Too Poor to Leave, Too Rich to Stay: Developmental and Global Health Correlates of Physician Migration to the United States, Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom", American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 98, Issue No. 1, 2008, pp 148-154.
[4] F. Docquier, "Brain Drain and Inequality Across Nations", Discussion Paper No. 2440, IZA, 53072 Bonn, Germany, 2006.
[5] F. Mullan, "The Metrics of the Physician Brain Drain", The new England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 353, 2005, pp 1810-1818.
[6] Higher Education commission, Pakistan, Retrieved from; http://www.hec,gov. com.pk at 4:35 pm, 2008.
[7] H. Javaid, "Current Brain Drain of national Doctors", The Daily Jang, Pakistan, July 29, 2009.
[8] I. Sarfaraz, "Pakistan-s Brain Drain: Do We Not Know or Do We Not Care?" Pakistanis Abroad, Society", Retrieved from; http://pakistaniat.com/2008 /04/02/pakistan % E2%80%99s-brain-draindo- we-not-know-or-do-we-not-care on 02.02.2011 at 01:30 pm, 2008.
[9] J.P. Ioannidis, "Global estimates of high-level brain drain and deficit", FASEB J2004; 18:936, 2004.
[10] M. Perry, "Medical "brain drain" hindering AIDS battle." Mon Jul 23, EDT, 2007.
[11] N. S. Ali, F. Khimani, M. Andrades, K. S. Ali and R. Paul, "Reasons for migration among medical students from Karachi", Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan, 2006.
[12] O. Gish, "Brain Drain", The Nation, Lahore Pakistan. Retrieved from;http://meltingpot.fortunecity.com/botswana/616/oscar.html on 12.01.2011 at 12: 30 pm, 1997.
[13] Pakistan Medical & Dental Council, "List of Recognized medical and dental institutions/ Colleges /DAI's", Retrieved from http://www.pmdc.org.pk/ on 05.02.2011 at 12:57 pm, 2011.
[14] Pakistan's Overseas Employment Corporation, Retrieved from; http://www.oec,gov. com.pk on 12.11.2009 at 11: pm, 2005.
[15] P. Hussey, "International migration patterns of physicians to the United States: A cross-national panel analysis", Health Policy, Vol. 84, Issue 2, 2005, pp 298-307.
[16] R.L. Barker, "The social work dictionary (5th ed.)", Washington, DC: NASW Press, 2003.
[17] S. Dodani and R. E. LaPorte, "Brain drain from developing countries: how can brain drain be converted into wisdom gain?", The Royal Society of Medicine. J R Soc Med 2005, 98: pp 487-491.
[18] S. Kaukab and Shahana, "Situation of migration and potential available to reverse the brain drain--case from Pakistan", Public Personnel Management; Spring, Vol. 34 Issue 1, 2005, pp 103-112.
[19] S. Shafqat and A. Zaidi, "Unwanted foreign doctors: what is not being said about the brain drain", J R Soc Med. Vol. 98, 2005, pp 492-493.
[20] World Bank. "World Development Report 2000/01". Washington, DC: 2001.
[21] World Migration Report, "Trends in International Migration", Eighty- Fourth Session, MC/INF/256 Original: English 31 October 2002.
[22] Z. Aly and F. Taj, "Why Pakistani Medical Graduates Must Remain Free to Emigrate", PLoS Med. January, Vol. No. 5, Issue No. 1, 2008.