Depression and Its Effects on a Cognitive Performance Test
Authors: C. Noi-Okwei
In this study, participants with adjustment disorder with depressed mood (aged 18-54 years) with mild depression (N=18), severe depression (N=12) were compared with healthy controls (N=20) on the Multidimensional Aptitude Battery (MAB) a cognitive performance test. Using One Way Analysis of Variance and Matched Sample t-test. The results of the analysis shows that severely depressed participants performed poorly on the cognitive performance test relative to controls, however there were no significant differences on the cognitive performance test scores between the severely depressed and the mildly depressed. In addition, performance on the non-verbal performance subtest was poorer than that of the verbal subtest, suggesting that depression affects the executive functions of the person.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1332326Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4117
 World Health Organization. The health report 2002. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2002.
 R. E. Lauer, B. Giordani, M. J. Boivin, N. Halle, B. Glasgow, N. E. Alessi, and S. Berent, Effects of depression on memory performance and metamemory in children. Journal of American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry vol. 33 no.5, pp. 679-85, 1994.
 M.P. Austin, P. Mitchell, and G. M. Godwin, Cognitive deficits in depression. Possible implications for functional neuropathology, British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 178, 200-206, 2001.
 E.M. Haines, P. M. Norris, and A.D. Kashy, The effects of depressed mood on academic performance in college students. Journal of College Student Development, vol. 37, pp. 519-526,1996.
 A Hysenbegasi, S. L. Hass, and C.R. Rowland. The impact of depression on the academic productivity of university students. The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics vol 8. pp. 145-151, 2005.
 M.P. Austin, M. Ross, C. Murray, R.E. O-Carroll, K.P. Ebmeier, and G.M. Godwin, Cognitive function in major depression, Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 25, no. 1, 21-9,1992.
 P.J. Portegijs, F.G. Vander-Horst, I.M. Proot H.F. Kraan, N.C. Gunther, and J.A. Knottnerus, Somatization in frequent attenders of general practice. Social Psychiatry Epidemiology, vol.31, pp.29-37, 1996.
 Counseling Centre. Referrals for the year 2009. University of Education, Winneba, 2009.
 V. Elderkin-Thompson, A. Kumar, W. B. Bilker, J.J. Dukin, J. Mintz, P.J. Moberrg, R. I. Mesholam, and R. E. Gur, Neuropsychological deficits among patients with late-onset minor and major depression, Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, vol.18, no.5, pp. 529-549, 2003.
 J.E. Ilsley, A.P.R. Moffoot, and R.E. O-Carroll, An analysis of memory dysfunction in major depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 35, pp. 1-9, 1995.
 R. Purcell, P. Maruff, M. Kyrios, and C. Pantellis, Neuropsychological function in young patients with unipolar major depression, Psychological Medicine, vol 27, 1277-1285, 1997.
 J.F. Gumnick, and C.B. Nemeroff, Problems with currently available antidepressants. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 61 (supplement 10), pp. 5-15.
[in reserve], 2000.
 H. Davis, and W.R. Unruh, Word memory in non-psychotic depression Perceptual Motor Skills, vol. 51, (3Pt 1), 699-705, 1980.
 M. Kovacs, and D. Goldston, Cognitive and Social Cognitive development of depressed children and adolescents. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 30, pp. 388-392, 1991.
 H. Kalska, R. L. Punamaki, T. Makinen-Pelli, M. Saarinen, Memory and metamemory functioning among depressed patients. Applied Neuropsychology, vol.6, no.2, pp. 96-107, 1999.
 A. F. Schatzberg, J. A. Posener, C. DeBattista, M. Kalehzan, A. J. Rothschild,and P.K. Shear, Neuropsychological deficits in Psychotic versus Nonpsychotic Major Depression and no Mental Illness. American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 157, pp. 1095-1100, 2000.
 N. Bazin, P. Perruchet, M. De Bonis, A. Feline, The dissociation of explicit and implicit memory in depressed patients, Psychological Medicine vol. 24 no.1, 239-345, 1994.
 M. First, L. Spitzer, M. Gibbon, and J. Williams, Structured interview for Axis 1 DSM-IV Disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychology Press, 1995.
 A.T. Beck, A. J. Rush, B. E.Shaw, and G. Emery, Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford, 1979.
 N. Dua," Cognitive style in depression. A study of Symptomatic and remitted unipolar major depression at the Accra Psychiatric Hospital. (Unpublished work style)" Unpublished, 1998, Department of Psychology, University of Ghana.
 D.N Jackson, Multidimensional Aptitude battery-11. Sigma Assessment systems Inc. 1998.
 L. Debra, "Standardization of the Multidimensional Aptitude Battery (Unpublished work style)" Unpublished, 2002.Department of Psychology, University of Ghana, Legon.
 H. Christensen, K. Griffiths, A. Makinnon, and P. Jacomb, A quantitative review of Cognitive deficits in depression and Alzheimertype dementia, Journal of International Neuropsychological society, vol.3 no.6, 631-51, 1997.
 R. D. Nebes, M. A. Butters, J. T. Becker, B. S. Zmuda, B.H. Mulsant, B. G. Pollock, and C. F. Reynolds III, Changes in Cognitive Functioning Following Treatment of Late-Life Depression. American Journal of Psychiatry,Vol.157, pp. 1949-1954, 2000.
 J. Sweeney, S. Wetzler, P. Stokes, and J. Kocsis, Cognitive functioning in depression. Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. 45, pp. 836 - 842,1989.
 R. Katz, B. F. Shaw, M. T. Vallis, and S. A. Kaiser, The assessment of severity patterns and symptoms in depression.In Handbook of depression, 2nd ed.,Guilford Press, NY, 1995pp.61-85.
 J. H. Jenkins, A. R. Kleinman, and B. J. Good, Cross cultural studies of depression. In J. Becker 7 A. Kleinman (Eds.), Psychosocial Aspects of Depression. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1991.
 V. Patel, M. Abas, J. Broadhead, C. Todd, and Reeler, Depression in developing countries: lessons from Zimbabwe. British Medical Journal, vol. 322, pp. 482-484, 2001.
 S.Chanon, Executive dysfunction in depression: the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Journal of affective Disorders, vol. 39 no.2, 107-14, 1996.
 J. B. Henriques, and R. J. Davidson, Brain electrical asymmetries during cognitive task performance in depressed and nondepressed subjects. Biological Psychiatry, vol. 42, no.11, pp. 1039-1050, 1997.
 S. Blackmun, Is it Depression or is it Dementia? Psychiatric Times vol 15, no. 2, 2004.