Quality of Groundwater in the Shallow Aquifers of a Paddy Dominated Agricultural River Basin, Kerala, India
Groundwater is an essential and vital component of our life support system. The groundwater resources are being utilized for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes. There is growing concern on deterioration of groundwater quality due to geogenic and anthropogenic activities. Groundwater, being a fragile must be carefully managed to maintain its purity within standard limits. So, quality assessment and management are to be carried out hand-in-hand to have a pollution free environment and for a sustainable use. In order to assess the quality for consumption by human beings and for use in agriculture, the groundwater from the shallow aquifers (dug well) in the Palakkad and Chittur taluks of Bharathapuzha river basin - a paddy dominated agricultural basin (order=8th; L= 209 Km; Area = 6186 Km2), Kerala, India, has been selected. The water samples (n= 120) collected for various seasons, viz., monsoon-MON (August, 2005), postmonsoon-POM (December, 2005) and premonsoon-PRM (April, 2006), were analyzed for important physico-chemical attributes. Spatial and temporal variation of attributes do exist in the study area, and based on major cations and anions, different hydrochemical facies have been identified. Using Gibbs'diagram, rock dominance has been identified as the mechanism controlling groundwater chemistry. Further, the suitability of water for irrigation was determined by analyzing salinity hazard indicated by sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC) and sodium percent (%Na). Finally, stress zones in the study area were delineated using Arc GIS spatial analysis and various management options were recommended to restore the ecosystem.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1331127Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2019
 Abbasi, S.A., 1998. Water Quality Sampling and Analysis. Discovery Publishing House, New Delhi. 51p.
 APHA, 1995. Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water. 19thedition, APHA, Washington D.C, USASS.
 Appelo, C.A.J. and Postma, D., 2005. Geochemistry, Groundwater and Pollution, 2nd edition. Balkema publishers, Leiden, the Netherlands, 404p.
 Babu, K.N., Padmalal, D., Maya, K., Sreeja, R. and Arun, P.R., 2007. Quality of Surface and Ground Water Around Tile and Brick Clay Mines in the Chalakudy River Basin, Southwestern India. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, Vol.69, pp. 279-284.
 Bajpayee, S.K. and Verma, A., 2001. Water Quality of Rivers of Kerala, South Western, India. In: Subramanian, V. and Ramanathan, A.L., (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Workshop on Ecohydrology. Capital Publishing Company, New Delhi, India,. pp. 307-308.
 Bohlke, J.K., 2002. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination. Hydrogeol J., Vol.10, pp. 153-179. doi:10.1007/s10040- 001-0183-3.
 Carpenter, S.R., Caraco, N.F., Correll, D.L., Howarth, R.W., Sharpley, A.N. and Smith, V.H., 1998. Non point of surface waters with phosphorous and nitrogen. Ecological Application, Vol.8 (3), pp. 559- 568.
 CGWB, 2005. District Groundwater Management Studies of Palghat District, Kerala, Technical Report Series, Report No.25/KR/CGWB/2004-05.
 Chapman, D. and Kimstach, V., 1992. Selection of water quality variables. In: Chapman, D. (Ed.), Water Quality Assessment UNESCO, WHO and UNEP, pp. 59-126.
 Chattopadhyay, S., Asa Rani, L. and. Sangeetha, P.V., 2005. Water quality variations as linked to landuse pattern: A case study in Chalakudy river basin, Kerala. Curr. Sci., Vol.89 (12), 2167p.
 Collins, R. and Jenkins, A., 1996. The impact of agricultural land use on stream chemistry in the middle Hills of the Himalayas. Jour. Hydrol., Vol. 185, pp. 71-86.
 Dass,S., Agarwal, M., Chaudhary, Y.S. and Shrivastav, R. 2001. A Study on Fluoride and other Water Quality Parameters of Ground Water of District Agra (U.P.). In: Subramanian, V. and Ramanathan, A.L. (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Workshop on Ecohydrology. Capital Publishing Company, New Delhi, India, 213p.
 Flood, D., 1996. Irrigation Water Quality for BC Greenhouses, Floriculture Fact sheet, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, British Columbia.
 Fuhriman, D.K. and Barton, J.R., 1971. Groundwater pollution in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah, Water Poll. Cont. Research Ser. 16060 ERU, U.S. Environment Protection Agency, Washington D.C., 249p.
 Garg, S.S., 2003. Water quality of Well and Bore Well of Ten Selected Locations of Chitrakoot Region. In: Aravind Kumar (Ed.), Aquatic Environment and Toxicology, Daya Publishing House, Delhi, India, 114p.
 Griffioen, J., 2001. Potassium adsorption ratios as an indicator for the fate of agricultural potassium in groundwater. J. Hydrol. 254, pp. 244-254.
 Jalali, M., 2005. Nitrates leaching from agricultural land in Hamadan, western Iran, Agric. Ecosyst Environ.,Vol.110, pp. 210- 218.
 Jarvie, H. P., Whitton, B. A. and Neal, C., 1998. Nitrogen and phosphorous in east coast British rivers: Speciation, sources and biological significant. Science of the Total environment, pp. 210-211 and 79-109.
 Jeong, C.H., 2003. Effect of landuse and urbanization on hydrochemistry and contamination of ground water from Taejon area, Korea. Journal of Hydrology, Vol.235, pp. 194-210.
 Kolahchi, Z. and Jalali, M. 2006. Effect of water quality on the leaching of potassium from sandy soil. J. Arid Environ. Vol.68, pp. 624-639.
 Kotaiah, B. and Reddy, S.S., 2004. Ground Water Quality of Block-V Srisailam Right Branch Canal Command Area, Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh. In: Arvind Kumar (Ed.), Water Pollution. APH Publishing Corporation, New Delhi. 105p.
 Lehr, J.H., Gass, T.E., Pettyjohn, W.A. and De Marre, J., 1980. Domestic Water Treatment. Mc Graw-hill Book Co., New Delhi, 655p.
 Lloyd, J.W. and Heathcote, J.A., 1985. Natural Inorganic Hydrochemistry in Relation to Groundwater. Claredon Press, Oxford, 294p.
 Mishra, S.P. and Saksena, D.N., 1993. Planktonic fauna in relation to physico-chemical characteristics of Gauri Tank at Bhind, M.P. India. Advances in Limnology. Narendra Publishing House. New Delhi, pp. 57- 61.
 NAS, 1974. Water quality criteria. Nat. Acad. Sci., 23 (1972): 105p.
 Nordstrom, P.L., 1987. Groundwater resource of the antlers and Travis peak formations in the outcrop area of North Central Texas. Texas Water Development Board, Report 298, 280p.
 Radha Krishnan, R., Dharamaraj, K. and Ranjitha Kumari, B.D., 2007. A comparative study on the physico-chemical and bacterial analysis of drinking borewell and sewage water in the three different places of Sivakasi. J. Environ. Biol., Vol.28, pp. 105-108.
 Raghunath, R., Sreedhara Murthy, T.R. and Raghavan, B.R., 2001. Spatial distribution of pH, EC and total dissolved solids of Nethravathi river basin, Karnataka state, India, Poll. Res. V.20 (3), pp. 413-418.
 Ramesh, R., 2001. Point and Non-point sources of Groundwater Pollution: Case Studies along the East Coast of India. In: Subramanian, V.and Ramanathan, A.L. (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Workshop on ECOHYDROLOGY. Capital Publishing Company, New Delhi, India, 107p.
 Rao, P.M., Sekhar, P. and Yadav, Y.S., 2004. Water Quality Studies on Kolleru Lake and Its Infalling Drains of A.P., India. In: Arvind Kumar (Ed.), Water Pollution. APH Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, 171p.
 Saha, D., Dhar, Y.R. and Sikdar, P.K., 2008. Geochemical Evolution of Groundwater in the Pleistocene Aquifers of South Ganga Plain, Bihar. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, Vol.71, pp. 473-482.
 Saleh, A., Al-Ruwaih and Shehata, M., 1999. Hydrogeochemical processes operating within the main aquifers of Kuwait. J. Arid. Environ. 42, pp. 195-209.
 Sawyer, C. N. and McCarty, P. L., 1967. Chemistry for sanitary engineers, 2nd ed., McGraw-hill, New York, 518p.
 Simeonov, V., Stratis, J. A., Samara, C., Zachariadis, G., Voutsa, D., Anthemidis, A., Sofoniou, M. and Kouimtzis, T.H. 2003. Assessment of the surface water quality in Northern Greece. Water Research, Vol.37, pp. 4119-4124.
 Soman, K. 1977. Geology of Kerala, published by Geological Society of India, Bangalore, India-560019, 280p.
 Sreedevi, P.D., 2004. Groundwater quality of Pageru river basin, Cuddepah district, Andhra Pradesh. J. Goel. Soc. India, Vol.64 (5), pp.619- 636.
 Todd, D. K., 2001. Groundwater Hydrology, 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons Pte. Ltd. - Singapore, pp. 334.
 UNEP, 1999. United Nations Environment Program. Global Environment Outlook 2000. Earthscan, U.K.
 Valsalakumar, N., 2003. Environmental Quality and Health in Nattakom Panchayat, Discussion Paper No. 50, Kerala Research Programme on Local Level Development, Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram, pp. 29-30.
 WHO, 1993. Guidelines for drinking water quality. 1. Recommendations, 2nd Edn. World Health Organization, Geneva.
 WHO, 1996. Guidelines for Drinking Water, Vol. 2, Recommendations, World Health Organization, Geneva.