Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31108
Statistical Evaluation of Nonlinear Distortion using the Multi-Canonical Monte Carlo Method and the Split Step Fourier Method

Authors: Ioannis Neokosmidis, Nikos Gkekas, Thomas Kamalakis, Thomas Sphicopoulos


In high powered dense wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) systems with low chromatic dispersion, four-wave mixing (FWM) can prove to be a major source of noise. The MultiCanonical Monte Carlo Method (MCMC) and the Split Step Fourier Method (SSFM) are combined to accurately evaluate the probability density function of the decision variable of a receiver, limited by FWM. The combination of the two methods leads to more accurate results, and offers the possibility of adding other optical noises such as the Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) noise.

Keywords: Nonlinear optics, Monte Carlo, optical crosstalk, Wavelength-division Multiplexing (WDM)

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1333


[1] R. Ramaswami and K. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective. San Diego: Academic Press, 2002.
[2] I. Neokosmidis et al., "New Techniques for the Suppression of the Four-Wave Mixing-Induced Distortion in Nonzero Dispersion Fiber WDM Systems," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 1137-1144, 2005.
[3] D. Yevick, "Multicanonical Communication System Modeling - Application to PMD statistics," IEEE Photon. Tech. Letters, Vol. 14, pp. 1512-1514 (2002).
[4] R. Hozhonner et al., "Use of multicanonical Monte Carlo simulations to obtain accurate bit error rates in optical communication systems," Optics Lett,, Vol. 28, pp. 1894-1896 (2003).
[5] David P. Landau and K. Binder, A Guide To Monte Carlo Simulations in Statistical Physics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
[6] G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. N.Y.: Academic, 1995
[7] S. Song, C. T. Allen, K. R. Demarest and R. Hui, "Intensity-Dependent Phase-Matching Effects on Four-Wave Mixing in Optical Fibers," J. Lightwave Technol., Vol. 17, pp. 2285-2290 (1999).
[8] K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki and R. I. MacDonald, "CW three-wave mixing in single-mode optical fibers," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 49, pp. 5098-5106 (1978).
[9] M. Eiselt, "Limits on WDM Systems Due to Four-Wave Mixing: A Statistical Approach," J. Lightwave Technol., Vol 17, pp. 2261-2267 (1999).
[10] K. Inoue, K. Nakanishi, K. Oda and H. Toba, "Crosstalk and Power Penalty Due to Fiber Four-Wave Mixing in Multichannel Transmissions," J. Lightwave Technol., Vol. 12, pp. 1423-1439 (1994).
[11] G. H. Einarsson, Principles of Lightwave Communications (John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1996).
[12] P. J. Winzer, M. Pfennigbauer, M. M. Strasser and W. R. Leeb, "Optimum Filter Bandwidths for Optically Preamplified NRZ Recievers," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, No. 9, pp. 1263-1273, September 2001.
[13] B. Xu and M. Brandt-Pearce, "Comparison of FWM- and XPM-Induced Crosstalk Using the Volterra Series Transfer Function Method," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 40-53, January 2003.
[14] S. Kumar, G. Luther, J. Hurley, "Finite-band noise theory and experiment for four-wave mixing in RZ transmission systems," OFC, vol. 3, WW6-1 - WW6-4, 2001
[15] D. Yevick, "The Accuracy of Multicanonical System Models," IEEE Photon. Tech. Letters, 15, 224-226 (2003).
[16] J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications (4th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, 2000).
[17] K. Inoue, "Phase-mismatching characteristic of four-wave mixing in fiber lines with multistage optical amplifiers," Optics Letters, Vol. 17, pp. 801-802 (1992).