Opposition Parties and the Politics of Opposition in Africa: A Critical Analysis
Authors: Wondwosen Teshome B.
The major aim of this paper is to investigate the opposition politics in Africa. The paper also examines the status and the role, the contributions and the weaknesses of opposition1 political parties in Africa, particularly in transitional democracies that emerged in the 1990s. In Africa, many of the opposition parties appear or become active only during an election, and disappear when the election is over. It is found out that most of the opposition parties in Africa are established around the personalities of individuals, lack internal democracy, suffer from inter-party and intra-party conflicts, have severe shortage of finance, and lack strong base and experience. Their weaknesses also include bad organization and weak connection with the popular constituencies. The paper concludes that most of the weaknesses of the African opposition parties emanate from the incumbents- hostile policies, which are mostly aimed at fragmenting and weakening the opposition groups.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1328108Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4010
 T. Maliyamkono and F. Kanyangolo (Eds), When Political Parties Clash. Dar-es-Salaam: Tema Publishers, 2003.
 A. Heywood, Politics, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2nd edn., 2002.
 Mohamed Salih (ed.), African Political Parties: Evolution, Institutionalisation and Governance, London: Pluto Press, 2003.
 D. Kadima, The Politics of Party Coalitions in Africa. Johannesburg: Electoral Institute of Southern Africa (EISA), 2006.
 D. Kadima, K. Matlosa and V. Shale, ÔÇÿEnhancing the Effectiveness of Political Parties in the SADC Region through Public Outreach Programmes: Focus on Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Zambia-, EISA Research Report no. 29, 2006.
 M. A. Mohamed Salih and Per Nordlund, Political Parties in Africa: Challenges for Sustained Multiparty Democracy. Africa Regional Report Based on research and dialogue with political parties. International IDEA: Stockholm, 2007.
 Matthias Canton, Effective Party Assistance: Stronger Parties for Better Democracy. Policy Paper, IDEA, November 2007.
 Harald Mathisen and Lars Svasand, Funding political parties in emerging African democracies: Whatrole for Norway? Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute-Development Studies and Human Rights, 2002.
 NDI (National Democratic Institute), Funding of Political Parties: An International Comparative Study. Washington, 1991.
 E.E. Schattschneider, Party Government. New York: Holt, Rhinehart, and Winston, 1942.
 Juan Linz and Alfred Stephan, "Towards Consolidated Democracies". Journal of Democracy, 7(2), April 1996, pp. 14-33.
 NED (National Endowment for Democracy), International Forum for Democratic Studies, Political Parties and Democracy: Conference Report, Washington, DC:, November 1996, P.4.
 New Politics Network. Policy Briefing, The Funding of Political Parties. London, 2005.
 IDEA, "Political Parties in East Africa: Diversity in Political Systems," Stockholm, 2007.
 Matt Murphy and Graeme Blair, "Political Reconciliation and Democratic Contestation in South Africa: Evaluating the Role of Opposition Parties Since 1994," Paper Prepared for the MPSA Conference, April 20-23, Chicago, Illinois, 2006.
 R. A. Dahl, Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971.
 S. Huntington, The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman, OK, University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.
 A. Przeworski, Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America. New York, Cambridge University Press, 1991.
 Emmanuel Dolo, "Opposition parties: Benefits and Challenges in Building Democracy", The Perspective, Atlanta, pp. 1-8, 20 October 2006. Available:
 Alban S. K. Bagbin, The Role, Rights and Responsibilities of the Opposition.(n.d):Available:http://www.cpahq.org/uploadedFiles/Progra mmes_and_Activities/Professional_Development/Role%20of%20Oppos ition%20in%20Ghana's%20Democracy%20.pdf (Accessed 20 September 2008).
 Julius Kiiza, "The Role of Opposition Parties in a Democracy", A paper presented at the Regional Conference on Political Parties and Democratisation in East Africa 25 - 27/08/2005, Impala Hotel, Arusha, 2005.
 Gerald Schmitz, "The Opposition in A Parliamentary System "Political and Social Affairs Division, BP-47E, December 1988.
 Bertha Z. Osei-Hwedie, The Political Opposition in Botswana: the politics of factionalism and fragmentation, Transformation 45, pp.57-77, 2001.
 CPA, CPA/Commonwealth Secretariat Report on Role of the Opposition, Data paper 13, 153rd Commonwealth parliamentary Conference, India, 2007.
 Adrienne LeBas, "The Contributions of Contention: Political Change in theHybrid Regimes of Southern Africa," Paper Prepared for delivery at the 2003 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association. Philadelphia, PA.. August 28-31, 2003.
 Brian T. Mokopakgosi and Mpho G Molomo, "Democracy in the face of a weak opposition in Botswana". Pula: Botswana Journal of African Studies. Vol. 14, No.1, 2000.
 Sheldon Gellar, "Centralization and Democratic Despotism", In: Democracy in Senegal: Tacquevillian Analytics in Africa, Chapter 4, Palgrave Macmillan, 2002, pp. 44-58.
 Wondwosen Teshome B., "Democracy and Elections in Africa: Critical Analysis." In: International Journal of Human Sciences, Vol. 5, Issue 2, 2008, pp. 1-14.
 Giovanni Sartori, Parties and Party Systems: A Framework for Analysis, Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 1976.
 HRW, "Zambian Police Must Investigate Killing of Opposition Leader," 4 November 1999.
 Stephanie McCrummen, "Opposition Legislator Slain in Kenya, Sparking Clashes". Washington Post, 30 January 2008.
 Al Jazeera, "Second Kenyan Opposition MP Killed," 01 February 2008.
 Sudan Tribune, "Ethiopian opposition says lawmaker-elect killed by Police," 13 June 2005.
 The Ethiopian Herald, "Opposition say EPRDF suppression puts upcoming elections in danger," Vol. LXI, No. 197, 28 April 2005.
 Berhanu Nega, Yenetsanet Goh Siked. Likelebes Yetemokerew Ye Ethiopia Democracy (in Amharic) ("The Dawn of Freedom"), 1998 EC.
 Lidetu Ayallew, "Yearem Erisha" ("Weed Farm"), Addis Ababa: Progress Printing Press, 1998 EC.
 Reuters UK, "Ethiopia opposition alleges intimidation at polls", 13 April 2008.
 BBC, "Ethiopia opposition treason move," 9 November 2005.
 PINR (The Power and Interest News Report), "Intelligence Brief: Ethiopia," 25 October 2005.
 Basildon Peta, "Second Zimbabwe opposition leader arrested for treason", The Independent, 10 June 2003.
 AFP, "Ethiopia rebels say Addis starving Ogaden," 7/11/2008.
 BBC, "Ethiopia agrees to aid for Ogaden," 18 October 2007.
 Damien McElroy, "Bleak scenes as Ethiopia puts war before famine", Telegraph, 17 October 2008.
 Damien McElroy, "Ethiopia risks ┬ú130 million of British aid by ÔÇÿhiding famine-", Telegraph, 17 October 2008.
 Nicolas Van den Walle and Kimberley Butler, "Political parties and party systems in Africa-s illiberal democracies". Cambridge Review of International Affairs, Vol. XIII, No.1, 1999.
 Heather Deegan, "Elections in Africa-The Past Ten Years. An Assessment." Briefing paper No. 2. The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2003.
 Michael Abdalla Hamdok Chege, Per Nordlund, and Joram Rukambe, Political Parties in East Africa: Diversity in Political Party Systems. International IDEA Research and Dialogue Coordination, 2007.
 Merera Gudina, Ethiopia: Competing Ethnic Nationalisms and the Quest for Democracy, 1960-2000. Addis Ababa: Chamber Printing Press, 2003.
 Marc Morjé Howard and Philip G. Roessler, "Liberalizing electoral outcomes in competitive authoritarian regimes," American Journal of Political Science 50 (2):365-381, 2006.
 Ellen Lust-Okar, Structuring Conflict in the Arab World: Incumbents, Opponents, and Institutions. New York: Cambridge, 2005.
 Anna Maria Gentili, "Party, party systems and democratization in Sub- Saharan Africa." Paper Presented at the Sixth Global Forum on Reinventing Government, Seoul, Republic of Korea, International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 24-27 May 2005.
 IDEA, "Strengthening Political Parties in Africa," 01-11-2006.
 Inge Amundsen, Towards Democratic Consolidation. Party politics in Mali, Mimeo, 2002.
 Inge Amundsen and Markus Weimer, "Opposition parties and the upcoming 2008 parliamentary elections in Angola," CMI Working Papers WP 2008:9, 2008.
 Lise Rakner and Lars Svasand, "Fissions and fusions, foes and friends: Party-system re-structuring in Malawi in the 2004 general elections," CMI Working Papers, WP 2005: 6.
 A. Lijphart, Democracies: Patterns of Majoritarian and Consensus Government in Twenty-One Countries. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984.
 R. Taagepera and M. Shugart, Seats and Votes. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989.
 P. Ordeshook and 0. Shvetsova, "Ethnic Heterogeneity, District Magnitude, and the Number of Parties," American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 38, No. 1, 1994, pp. 100-123.
 G. Cox, Making Votes Count. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
 M. Jones, "Racial heterogeneity and the effective number of candidates in majority runoff elections: Evidence from Louisiana," Electoral Studies, 16(3), 1997, pp..349-358,
 R. Moser, Unexpected Outcomes: Electoral Systems, Political Parties, and Representation in Russia, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2001.
 S. Mozaffar, J. Scarritt, and G. Galaich, "Electoral institutions, ethnopolitical cleavages, and party systems in Africa's emerging democracies," American Political Science Review, Vol. 97, No. 3, 2003, pp. 379-390.
 Letitia Lawson, "Understanding patrimonial democracy", paper Prepared for presentation at the 2005 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington DC, September 1-4, 2005.
 Matthias Basedau, "Report on the Conference: Survival and Growth of Political Parties in Africa - Challenges and Solutions Towards the Consolidation of African Political Parties in Power and Opposition," February 27 — March 1, 2005, Accra; La Palm Royal Beach Hotel, Accra.
 Jennifer Gandhi and Ora John Reuter, "Opposition coordination in legislative elections under authoritarianism," Prepared for presentation at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, MA, August 27-31, 2008.
 The Reporter, "NEB questions the legality of CUDP", 15 October 2005.
 The Reporter, "Unable to respond to calls", 25 November 2005.
 B. Carroll and T.Carroll, "The consolidation of democracy in Mauritius", in: P. Burnell (ed.): The Resilience of Democracy. Persistent Practice, Durable Idea. London: Frank Cass, 1999.
 Patric Chabal and J.P. Daloz, Africa Works. Disorder as Political Instrument. Oxford: James Currey, 1999.
 Claude Ake, Democracy and Development in Africa. Washington: Brookings, 1996.
 Samuel Decalo, The Stable Minority: Civilian Rule in Africa. Gainesville, Fla: FAP Books, 1998.
 Adrienne LeBas, "Polarization and party development: Capturing constituencies in democratizing Africa", Paper prepared for delivery at the 2004 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, Illinois, September 2 - September 5, 2004.
 Micael Chege, "Between Africa's extremes' in: Larry Diamond and Marc F. Plattner (Eds.). The Global Resurgence of Democracy. Baltimore: John Hopkins University, 1996.
 Letitia Lawson, "Understanding Patrimonial Democracy", Paper Prepared for Presentation at the 2005 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington DC, September 1-4, 2005.
 Lise Rakner and Lars Svasand, Multi Party Elections in Africa's New Democracies. Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute, 2002.
 Julius 0. Ihonvbere, "Where is the Third Wave? A critical evaluation of Africa's non-transition to democracy," in: John Mukum Mkabu and Julius 0. Ihonvere (Eds.). Multiparty Democracy and Political Change: Constraints to Democratization in Africa. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998.
 Phillip Isakpa, "Opposition must offer credible, alternative policy options", BusinessDay: the voice of business, 14 September 2008.
 Kevin Grisham, E. Abd and Byran Martin, "Political party or not?: Transformation of rebellious movements in The Middle East." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Western Political Science association, Manchester Hyatt, San Diego, California, 2008.
 Aminata Faye Kasse, "Women in politics in Senegal" A paper presented at the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA)/Electoral Institute of Southern Africa (EISA)/Southern African Development Community (SADC) Parliamentary Forum Conference, The Implementation of Quotas: African Experiences, Pretoria, South Africa, 11-12 November 2003.
 Mavivi Myakayaka-Manzini, "Political party quotas in South Africa", A paper presented at the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 2003.
 Ruth Meena, "The Politics of Quotas in Tanzania," A paper presented at the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA)/Electoral Institute of Southern Africa (EISA)/Southern African Development, Community (SADC) Parliamentary Forum Conference, The Implementation of Quotas: African Experiences, Pretoria, South Africa, 11-12 November 2003.
 Alcinda Abreu, "Political party quotas in Mozambique: The experience of the PRELIM° Party", In: The Implementation of Quotas: African Experiences, Quota Report Series, Julie Ballington (Ed) A Report compiled from the findings and case studies presented at an International, IDEA, EISA and SADC Parliamentary Forum, Workshop held on 11-12 November 2004„ Pretoria, South Africa.
 Maxi Schoeman, "Where are the women and how are they today? An overview of the SADC region," Occasional Paper, Centre of African Studies , University of Copenhagen, October 2004.
 Lisa Baldez, "Elected bodies: The gender quota law for legislative candidates in Mexico," Paper presented at the Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia, August 28-31, 2003.
 Michael Johnston, "Political parties and democracy in theoretical and practical perspectives: Political finance policy, parties, and democratic development," National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI), Washington, 2005.
 Clarence Tshitereke, "Securing democracy: Party finance and party donations-the South African Challenge", ISS paper 63, Institute for Security Studies November 2002.
 Ulrich von Alemann, "Party finance, party donations and corruption," Paper Submitted for a TI workshop on corruption and political party funding in La Pietra, Italy, October 2000.
 Keith Ewing, "Corruption in party financing: The case for global standards," Global Corruption Report, 2001.
 Karolina Hulterstrom, "The logic of ethnic politics elite perceptions about the role of ethnicity in Kenyan and Zambian party politics," In: Political Opposition in African Countries: The Cases of Kenya, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe, Karolina Hulterstrom, Amin Y. Kamete, Henning Melber (Eds), Stockholm: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2007, pp. 7-39.
 "Elections in Ethiopia", EPRDF. Available :
 Staffan I. Lindberg, "Better turn the other cheek: The tragedy of electoral boycott and protest", Paper prepared for Division 45, panel "Opposition Politics under Electoral Authoritarianism", the 2004 APSA Annual Meeting, Chicago 1-4 September 2004.
 Susan Dayton Hyde and Emily Beaulieu, "Election boycotts, election observers, and competition: Do international election observers give parties an incentive to boycott elections?" Paper Prepared for delivery at the 2004 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, September 2 - September 5, 2004.
 J.M. Cohen, "Transition toward democracy and governance in post¬Mengistu Ethiopia." Development Discussion Paper No. 493. Harvard University, June 1994.
 NDIA (National Democratic Institute for International Affairs) and AAI (African American Institute), An Evaluation of the June 21, 1992 Elections in Ethiopia, 1992.
 Jennifer Gandhi, "Coordination among opposition parties in authoritarian elections" Paper Prepared for presentation at Dictatorships: Their Governance and Social Consequences conference at Princeton University, April 25-26, 2008.
 Staffan I. Lindberg, "The `Democraticness' of multiparty elections: participation, competition and legitimacy in Africa," paper presented at African Studies Association meeting, Washington, DC, Dec. 5-8, 2002.
 Staffan I. Lindberg, "Long live the 'Transition Paradigm': The power of elections," paper presented at the American Political Science Association meeting, Washington, DC, Sept. 1-4, 2005.
 Carrie Manning, "Assessing the value of imperfect elections in Sub-Saharan Africa" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott Wardman Park, Omni Shoreham, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, 01 September 2005.
 WIC (Walta Information Center), "AAPO intends to run for elections," 4 December 1999.
 Political Parties Registration Proclamation, Proclamation No. 46/1993, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE).
 Terrence Lyons, "Ethiopia: Implications of the May 2005 elections for future democratization programs." IFES, August 2005.
 Fareed Zakaria, "The rise of illiberal democracy," Foreign Affairs 76(6), 1997, pp.22-43.
 Fareed Zakaria, The Future of Freedom. New York: W.W. Norton, 2003.
 Michael Bratton, Nicolas van de Walle, Democratic Experiments in Africa: Regime Transitions in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
 Max Weber, Wirtschaft and Gesellschaft. Grundrift der verstehendenSoziologie.Tubingen: J.C.B. Mohr, 1980 (1922).
 Christian von Soest, "How does neopatrimonialism affect the African state? The case of tax collection in Zambia," GIGA Research Programme: Legitimacy and Efficiency of Political Systems, N° 32 November 2006.
 Derick W. Brinkerhoff and Arthur A. Goldsmith, "Clientelism, patrimonialism and democratic governance: An overview and framework for assessment and programming" Paper Prepared for USAid, Abt Associates: Bethesda, 2002.
 Christophe Van Der Beken, The Ethiopian Federal State Structure and the Accommodation of Ethnic Diversity: a View from the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region, Ghent University-Faculty of Law, 2003.
 WIC (Walta Information Center), "Dr. Beyene emerges winner in re-election", 27 June 2000.
 Pippa Norris, Building political parties: Reforming legal regulations and internal rules, International IDEA, 2005.
 Guy Hermet, "State-controlled elections: A framework." In: Guy Hermet, Richard Rose, and Alain Rouquie (eds). Elections without Choice. NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1978, pp.1-18.
 Andreas Schedler, "The nested game of democratization by elections." International Political Science Review 23 (1), 2002, pp.103-122.
 Larry Diamond, "Toward democratic consolidation." Journal of Democracy 5 (3), 2004, pp. 4-17.
 Wondwosen Teshome B., "International election observers in Africa: The case of Ethiopia." In: Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations, vol. 7, No.1, 2008, pp. 119-137.
 Lisa Blaydes, "Authoritarian elections and elite management: Theory and evidence from Egypt." Paper Prepared for delivery at a conference on Dictatorships: their Governance and Social Consequences, April 25¬26, Princeton University, 2008.
 Beatriz Magaloni, Voting for Autocracy: Hegemonic Party Survival and its Demise in Mexico. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
 Philippe Schmitter, "The impact and meaning of non-competitive, non-free and insignificant. elections in authoritarian Portugal, 1933-74". In: Guy Hermet, Richard Rose, and Alain Rouquie (eds). Elections without Choice. NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1978, pp.145-168.
 Jason Brownlee, Authoritarianism in an Age of Democratization. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
 Donnatella Della Porta, "Comparative politics and social movements" In: BertKlandermans and Susanne Saggenborg, (eds). Methods of Social Movement Research. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2002, pp. 286-313.
 Gary Cox, "Authoritarian elections and leadership succession." Manuscript. Department of Political Science, University of California, San Diego, 2008.
 Daniela Donno, and Athanassios Roussias, "Cheating pays: The impact of electoral manipulation on party systems", Paper prepared for presentation at the annual meeting of the, American Political Science Association, Philadelphia, PA, September 2, 2006.
 Steven Levitsky and Lucan A. Way, "The rise of competitive authoritarianism," Journal of Democracy 13 (2), 2002, pp.51-65.
 Ellen Lust-Okar and Amaney Ahmad Jamal, "Rulers and rules: Reassessing the influence of regime type on electoral rule formation. "Comparative Political Studies 35 (3), 2002, pp. 337-366.
 The Guardian, "Zimbabwe leaders 'agree power-sharing deal', 11 September 2008.
 Andreas Schedler, (ed.), Electoral Authoritarianism: The Dynamics of Unfree Competition.Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2006.
 Mark R Thompson. and Philipp Kuntz, "To steal or not to steal: authoritarian regime behavior after electoral defeat", Paper Prepared for delivery at the 2004 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, September 2 — September 5, 2004.
 Alemayehu Fantaw, "Mengist Wotaderu Bemefennqle mengist Yaswogdew Endehone engi yetekawami partiwoch Ashenefew Siltan Ayezum" ("The Government Might be Removed in a Military Coup, but not by Political Parties"), The Reporter 16 January 2008.
 Mark Beissinger, "Structure and example in modular political phenomena: The diffusion of Bulldozer/Rose/Orange/Tulip revolutions". Perspectives on Politics 5 (2), 2007, pp. 259-276.
 Todd Eisenstadt, Courting Democracy in Mexico. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
 Staffan Lindberg, "The Surprising Significance of African Elections", Journal of Democracy 17 (1), 2006, pp. 139-151.
 Guillermo O'Donnell and Philippe Schmitter, Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986.
 Elizabeth Jean Wood, Forging Democracy from Below: Insurgent Transitions in South Africa and El Salvador. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
 Barbara Geddes, "What do we know about democratization after twenty years?" Annual Review of Political Science 2, 1999, pp. 115-144.
 Cris Chinaka and MacDonald Dzirutwe, "Zimbabwe parties say reach power sharing deal," Reuters, 11 September 2008.
 Sky News, "Zimbabwe Nears Power Sharing Deal", 11 September 2008.
 Stephanie Holmes, "Power-sharing: conflict or compromise?", BBC, 10 March 2008.
 Times Online, "Details of Zimbabwe power-sharing deal emerge", 12 September 2008.
 Peter Burnell, Building Better Democracies: Why political parties matter, London: Westminister Foundation for Democracy, December 2004.
 CBS News, "Deadly clashes in Ethiopia", 8 June 2005.
 ABC News, "Five killed in Ethiopia protests: Medical sources", 2 November 2005.
 The Ethiopian Herald, "Police Commission says calm restored in Addis. Peace, stability prevails in the capital: MOI". Vol. LXI, No. 234, 10 June 2005.
 WIC, "Addisu calls upon public to strive for consolidation of democracy," 04 June 2005.
 Addis Tribune, "Untrained police force blamed," 24 June 2005.
 The Reporter, "Commissioner admits to use of untrained force," Vol. IX, No. 459, 25 June 2005.
 M. Coppedge, "District magnitude, economic performance, and party-system fragmentation in five Latin American countries," Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 30, No. 2, 1997, pp. 156-185.
 I. Van Biezen and Kopecky, P., The state and the parties: public funding, public regulation and rent-seeking in contemporary democracies. In: Party Politics, Volume 13, Issue 2, 2007, pp. 235-254.
 Leonard Wantchekon, "Clientelism and voting behavior: Evidence from a field experiment in Benin," World Politics 55 (3), 2003, pp. 399-422.
 John R. Heilbrunn, "Dictators, oil, and corruption in Africa", Paper prepared for presentation at the Annual Meetings of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, September 1-4, 2004.
 Carolien Van Ham and Maria Spirova, "Cleaning-up politics: Parties and corruption in the "New" Europe", Paper Prepared for delivery at the 2007 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, August 30th-September 2nd, 2007.
 Nicolas Van de Walle, "Presidentialism and clientelism in Africa's emerging Party Systems," Journal of Modern African Studies 41, 2, 2003, pp. 297-332.
 Donnatella Della Porta and M. Diani, Social Movements: An Introduction, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1999.
 Roberta. Ash Garner and Mayer Zald, "The political economy of social movement sectors" in: Social Movements in an Organizational Society, Mayer N. Zald, John David McCarthy (eds). Edison, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1987.
 Hanspeter Kriesi and Dominique Wisler, "The impact of social movements on political institutions: A comparison of the introduction of direct legislation in Switzerland and the U.S." Institute for European Studies. Working Paper no. 96.6, 1996.
 David S. Meyer and Sidney Tarrow (eds), "A movement society contentious politics for a new century," in: The Social Movement Society: Contentious Politics for a New Century. Landham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
 Sidney Tarrow, "Social movements in contentious politics: A review article," The American Political Science Review, 90:4, 1996, pp. 874- 883 .
 Charles Tilly, "Social movements and national politics." In: State Making and Social Movements, (eds) Charles Bright and Susan Harding, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1984, pp. 297-317.
 Ilgu, Cozier S. "The relationship between political party system and social movements: A test of the political opportunity structure" Paper prepared for delivery at the 2008 Meeting of the Western Political Science Association, San Diego, CA, March 20-22, 2004.
 Samuel Fambom, "Public funding of political parties in Africa". Paper submitted at the Africa Conference on Election, Democracy and Governance 7, 10 April 2003, Pretoria, South Africa, September 2003.
 Black Britain, "Anger as Ethiopia election probes are dropped" (24-06-2005).
 SABC News, "Ethiopian opposition vows to tackle poverty" (10 May 2005).
 Sudan tribune, "Ethiopians rally in support of govt. after opposition," 7 May 2005.
 Mail & Guardian, "Third time lucky?", 14 May 2005.
 VOA, "Ethiopian opposition denies government allegations of fomenting violence, slams abuses," 27 September 2005.
 Terry Lynn Karl, "The hybrid regimes of Central America," Journal of Democracy 6(3), 1995, pp.72-86.
 Matthijs Bogaards, "Defective democracies: Towards an integrated framework of democratic hybrids", Paper Prepared for delivery at the 2004 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, September 2 - September 5, 2004.
 Larry Diamond, "Thinking about hybrid regimes", Journal of Democracy, 13(2), 2002, pp.21-35.
 Gebru Asrat, Speech delivered by Arena Chairman Ato Gebru Asrat on September 20, 2008 in Washington, DC. Available:
 Ginbot 7 Dimtse (15 Meskerem 2001 EC.), No. 19.
 "Ethiopia Assessment", United Kingdom, Country Information & Policy Unit, Immigration & Nationality Directorate, Home Office, April 2002.
 Addis Tribune, "Defense Ministry warns independent press," 24 June 2005.
 The Sub-Saharan Informer, "Journalist taken to court in daggering state security, "Vol. IV, No. 024, 08 July 2005.
 The Ethiopian Herald, "Ministry warns some private papers to refrain form tarnishing army's fame". Vol. LXI No. 244, 22 June 2005.
 Wondwosen Teshome B., and Jan Zahotik, "Federalism in Africa: The case of ethnic-based federalism in Ethiopia", in: International Journal of Human Sciences, Vol. 5, Issue 2, 2008, pp. 1-39.
 BBC, "Ethiopia PM warns of 'hate' poll." (2005/05/06).