Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30172
An Experimental and Numerical Investigation on Gas Hydrate Plug Flow in the Inclined Pipes and Bends

Authors: M. M. Shabani, O. J. Nydal, R. Larsen

Abstract:

Gas hydrates can agglomerate and block multiphase oil and gas pipelines when water is present at hydrate forming conditions. Using "Cold Flow Technology", the aim is to condition gas hydrates so that they can be transported as a slurry mixture without a risk of agglomeration. During the pipeline shut down however, hydrate particles may settle in bends and build hydrate plugs. An experimental setup has been designed and constructed to study the flow of such plugs at start up operations. Experiments have been performed using model fluid and model hydrate particles. The propagations of initial plugs in a bend were recorded with impedance probes along the pipe. The experimental results show a dispersion of the plug front. A peak in pressure drop was also recorded when the plugs were passing the bend. The evolutions of the plugs have been simulated by numerical integration of the incompressible mass balance equations, with an imposed mixture velocity. The slip between particles and carrier fluid has been calculated using a drag relation together with a particle-fluid force balance.

Keywords: Cold Flow Technology, Gas Hydrate Plug Flow Experiments, One Dimensional Incompressible Two Fluid Model, Slurry Flow in Inclined Pipes and Bends, Transient Slurry Flow.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1058419

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1773

References:


[1] E. Sloan, and C. A. Koh, Clathrate Hydrate of Natural Gases. 3rd ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2008, pp. 1-29.
[2] J. J. Carroll, Natural Gas Hydrate a Guide for Engineers. 1st ed., Gulf Professional Publishing, Burlington, MA, 2003, pp. 17-38.
[3] R. Larsen, A. Lund, V. Andersson, and K.W. Hjarbo, "Conversion of Water to Hydrate Particles," 2001 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 2001, SPE 71550, pp. 1-5.
[4] A. Lund, and R. Larsen, "Conversion of Water to Hydrate Particles - Theory and Application," in Proc. 14th Symposium on Thermophysical Properties, Boulder, CO, 2000.
[5] M.M. Shabani, O.J. Nydal, and R. Larsen, "Stability of Hydrate Particles during Hydrate Slurry Transportation," Heat Transfer Engineering Journal, submitted for publication.
[6] H. Haghighi, R. Azarinezhad, A.R. Chapoy, and B. Tohidi, "Hydraflow- Avoiding Gas Hydrate Problems,", in Proc. 69th European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers Conference and Exhibition, London, 2007, pp. 2096-2106.
[7] V. Andersson, "Flow Properties of Natural Gas Hydrate Slurries, An experimental Study", Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Petrol. Eng., Norweg. Univ. of Sci. and Tech., Trondheim, Norway, 1999.
[8] M. Ilahi, "Evaluation of Cold Flow Concepts," M.Sc. dissertation, Dept. Petrol. Eng., Norwegian. Univ. of Sci. and Tech., Trondheim, Norway, 2005.
[9] M. Ilahi, "Evaluation of Cold Flow Concepts," M.Sc. dissertation, Dept. Petrol. Eng., Norwegian. Univ. of Sci. and Tech., Trondheim, Norway, 2005.
[10] V. Tvedt, "Evaluation of Different Commercialization Strategies for Cold Flow Technology," M.Sc. dissertation, Dept. Petrol. Eng., Norwegian. Univ. of Sci. and Tech., Trondheim, Norway, 2006.
[11] T.C. Clayton, Multiphase Flow Handbook. Taylor and Prancis Publ., New York, 2006. ch. 1,4,13.
[12] N.I. Kolev, Multiphase Flow Dynamics 1: Fundamentals. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2007, ch. 1.
[13] S.W. Churchill, "Friction factor equation spans all fluid-flow regimes," Chem. Eng., vol. 84, pp. 91-92, 1977.
[14] D.G. Thomas, "Transport characteristics of suspensions: VIII. A note on the viscosity of Newtonian suspensions of uniform spherical particles," J. Colloid Sci., vol. 20, pp. 267-277, 1965.
[15] T. Wangensteen, and O.J. Nydal, "Transient flow modeling," presented at Shell Research and Technology Centre, Amsterdam, Netherland, 2004.
[16] R.M. Turian, F.L. Hsu, and T.W. Ma, "Estimation of the critical velocity in pipeline flow of slurries," Powder Technol., vol. 51, pp. 35-47, 1987.
[17] O.J. Nydal, S. Banerjee, "Dynamic slug tracking simulations for gasliquid flow in pipelines," Chemical Engineering Communications, vol. 141-142, pp. 13-39, 1996.
[18] G. Zheng, J.P. Brill, and Y. Taitel, "Slug Flow Behavior in a Hilly Terrain Pipeline," Int. J. Multiphase Flow, vol. 20, pp. 63-79, 1994.
[19] K.C. Wilson, "Slip point of beds in solid-liquid pipeline flow," Proc. ASCE, J. Hydrol. Div., vol. 96, pp. 1-12, 1970.
[20] K.C. Wilson, "Evaluation of interfacial friction for pipeline transport models," in Proc. of the Hydrotransport 11th Conference, BHRA Fluid Eng., Cranfield, U.K., 1988, pp. 107-116.
[21] P. Doron, and D. Barnea, "A three-layer model for solid-liquid flow in horizontal pipes," Int. J. Multiphase Flow, vol. 19, pp. 1029-1043, 1993.
[22] P. Doron, and D. Barnea, "Pressure drop and limit deposit velocity for solid-liquid flow in pipes," Chem. Eng. Sci., vol. 50, pp. 1595-1604, 1995.
[23] P. Doron, and D. Barnea, "Flow pattern maps for solids-liquid flow in pipes," Int. J. Multiphase Flow, vol. 22, pp. 273-283, 1996.
[24] H. Nasr-El-Din, C.A. Shook, and J.A. Colwell, "A conductivity probe for local concentration measurement in slurry flows," Int. J. Multiphase Flow, vol. 13, pp. 365-378, 1987.