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Impact of the Existence of One-Way Functionson the Conceptual Difficulties of Quantum Measurements

Authors: Arkady Bolotin


One-way functions are functions that are easy to compute but hard to invert. Their existence is an open conjecture; it would imply the existence of intractable problems (i.e. NP-problems which are not in the P complexity class). If true, the existence of one-way functions would have an impact on the theoretical framework of physics, in particularly, quantum mechanics. Such aspect of one-way functions has never been shown before. In the present work, we put forward the following. We can calculate the microscopic state (say, the particle spin in the z direction) of a macroscopic system (a measuring apparatus registering the particle z-spin) by the system macroscopic state (the apparatus output); let us call this association the function F. The question is: can we compute the function F in the inverse direction? In other words, can we compute the macroscopic state of the system through its microscopic state (the preimage F -1)? In the paper, we assume that the function F is a one-way function. The assumption implies that at the macroscopic level the Schrödinger equation becomes unfeasible to compute. This unfeasibility plays a role of limit of the validity of the linear Schrödinger equation.

Keywords: One-way functions, P versus NP problem, quantummeasurements

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